Nr 1 (14) 2018

Social Pol­icy


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Table of Con­tents 1/2018 Eng­lish Edition

INTRODUCTIONRafał Wiśniewski
PREFACEElż­bi­eta Rafal­ska
SOCIAL POLICY DURING MATURE SOCIALISM PERIOD 1956–1980 – Michał Polakowski, Ryszard Szarfen­berg
SOCIAL POLICY DURING POLAND’S MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  2004–2017 – Grażyna Firlit-Fesnak, Mirosław Grewiński

SOCIAL ASSISTANCE: FROM CARE TO SOCIAL SERVICES  – Elż­bi­eta Bojanowska, Jerzy Krzyszkowski


Rafał Wiśniewski (Professor,The Car­di­nal Ste­fan Wyszyński Uni­ver­sity)
In the social aware­ness of Poles, 2018 stands out due to the cel­e­bra­tion of the 100th anniver­sary of Poland’s regain­ing of its inde­pen­dence. 1 Novem­ber 11th, Inde­pen­dence Day, was par­tic­u­larly fes­tive. It was a unique moment in which Poles enjoyed the fact that they belonged to a great civic com­mu­nity. Pol­ish soci­ety, like all mod­ern soci­eties, is char­ac­ter­ized by con­sid­er­able com­plex­ity, an ele­ment of which is func­tional diversity.2 Thus, 2018 was an oppor­tu­nity for cel­e­bra­tion for many groups and insti­tu­tions that con­sti­tuted them­selves within the frame­work of the Pol­ish State a hun­dred years ago, includ­ing the Min­istry of Cul­ture and National Her­itage, the Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labor, and Social Pol­icy, and the Cen­tral Sta­tis­ti­cal Office.
Each of these areas of social life is an aspect of con­sol­i­da­tion over the 100 years of inde­pen­dence. Inscrib­ing itself into the anniver­sary events, each one deserves spe­cial atten­tion. With­out mak­ing any claims to eval­u­ate or com­pare the var­i­ous pil­lars of social life, I would like to point out selected cir­cum­stances accom­pa­ny­ing the birth of social pol­icy in Poland. Their impor­tance seems under­stand­able when one looks at the past through the lens of great social processes.
The leg­is­la­tion of Poland, reborn after 123 years of the Par­ti­tions, was very mod­ern. The grant­ing vot­ing rights to women, estab­lish­ing an eight–hour work­ing day, guar­an­tee­ing chil­dren free and uni­ver­sal edu­ca­tion, and over­see­ing the work­ing con­di­tions juve­niles, were all intro­duced in Poland much ear­lier than in many West­ern coun­tries. Such reg­u­la­tions remained in stark con­trast to the real­i­ties in which Poles had lived until then.3 Decades of exploita­tion of the inhab­i­tants of Pol­ish land and the lack of under­tak­ings aimed at the devel­op­ment of the occu­pied ter­ri­to­ries led to a sit­u­a­tion in which the splen­dor of the Polish–Lithuanian Com­mon­wealth remained alive only in the col­lec­tive mem­ory. Addi­tion­ally, soci­ety suf­fered from the effects of the First World War, pro­longed by the fight for the east­ern bor­ders with the Soviet Union. Poverty, hunger, illit­er­acy, and the fate of chil­dren orphaned by civil­ians and sol­diers who died between 1914 and 1918 were very seri­ous chal­lenges.
The fathers of the reborn state, headed by Józef Pił­sud­ski, attached great impor­tance to social issues. Before start­ing activ­i­ties lead­ing to the for­ma­tion of the Pol­ish army, Mar­shal Pił­sud­ski was for years involved in the work of the Pol­ish Social­ist Party. Among other things, its activ­i­ties involved the pub­lish­ing the Robot­nik [Worker] magazine.4 Indus­tri­al­iza­tion and its asso­ci­ated urban­iza­tion resulted in such pro­found changes in the social struc­ture of many coun­tries over the course of the 19th cen­tury that, under their influ­ence the polit­i­cal order of Europe began to rup­ture in the early 20th cen­tury. Rep­re­sen­ta­tives of colo­nial pow­ers, future new states becom­ing the polit­i­cal organ­isms of many Euro­pean nations formed from out of the post–Versailles behe­moths, and the Bol­she­viks seek­ing to spread the rev­o­lu­tion­ary flame across the continent5 played a role in estab­lish­ing the new bor­ders. Pił­sud­ski rebuilt Poland as a national com­mu­nity based on cul­ture, com­mon his­tory, and her­itage. At the same time, he was able to effec­tively resist the threat from the east. This was thanks to not only his mil­i­tary genius, but also the trust he enjoyed due to his sen­si­tiv­ity to the prob­lems of the lower social strata.
Imple­men­ta­tion of the idea of social sol­i­dar­ity in the Sec­ond Pol­ish Repub­lic encoun­tered seri­ous obsta­cles that were the result of the eco­nomic real­ity as well as the objec­tively dif­fi­cult sit­u­a­tion involv­ing the unit­ing three extremely dif­fer­ent post–Partition real­i­ties. This is all the more rea­son for the mer­its of the fathers of the first Pol­ish solu­tions in the field of social pol­icy deserve recog­ni­tion. Social issues also played a sig­nif­i­cant role in later years as raised by the oppo­si­tion, espe­cially dur­ing the birth of the Sol­i­dar­ity Free Trade Union, in the times of the Pol­ish People’s Repub­lic. This sen­si­tiv­ity to social issues remains key even today, as exem­pli­fied by the “Fam­ily 500 Plus” pro­gram. Let us hope that, thanks to such expe­ri­ences and tra­di­tions, attach­ment to the idea of social sol­i­dar­ity will also char­ac­ter­ize future gen­er­a­tions of Poles.
A detailed descrip­tion of social pol­icy changes in Poland over the last hun­dred years as well as an analy­sis of selected aspects of social pol­icy can be found in the arti­cles col­lected in this issue. An exten­sive 700–page mono­graph enti­tled Stule­cie pol­skiej poli­tyki społecznej 1918–2018 [One hun­dred years of Pol­ish social pol­icy 1918–2018], edited by E. Bojanowska, M. Grewiński, M. Rym­sza, and G. Uścińska, and pub­lished by the National Cen­ter for Cul­ture and the Min­istry of Labor and Social Pol­icy (War­saw, 2018) served as the basis for this choice. If you are inter­ested in a more in–depth exam­i­na­tion of the top­ics sig­naled in this issue, I encour­age you to con­sult this infor­ma­tive pub­li­ca­tion, which pro­vides addi­tional com­ments and analy­ses of var­i­ous aspects of social pol­icy over the past 100 years.

Elż­bi­eta Rafal­ska (Min­is­ter of Fam­ily, Labour and Social Pol­icy)
PREFACE (s. 2)
From the time when Poland regained inde­pen­dence until now, Pol­ish social pol­icy has under­gone sig­nif­i­cant trans­for­ma­tions. These changes depended on the polit­i­cal and eco­nomic sys­tem of the state, the con­di­tion of the national econ­omy, and on the objec­tives that pub­lic author­i­ties set for social pol­icy at that time.
On the eve of the regain­ing of inde­pen­dence by Poland, social pol­icy had already become one of the most impor­tant spheres of activ­ity of pub­lic author­i­ties. The Regency Coun­cil, the supreme state body, appointed a Min­is­ter of Social Wel­fare and Labor Pro­tec­tion on Jan­u­ary 3, 1918. The respon­si­bil­i­ties of this Min­is­ter were clearly defined at the same. They included issues of pub­lic char­ity, state care for the vic­tims of war, worker rela­tions, over­sight for worker emi­gra­tion, fac­tory inspec­tion, and prepar­ing labor pro­tec­tion and social secu­rity leg­is­la­tion.
The Min­is­ter took over the Tem­po­rary Labor Depart­ment of the Coun­cil of State and renamed it the Min­istry of Social Wel­fare and Labor Pro­tec­tion. Over the fol­low­ing months and years, this Min­istry under­went an orga­ni­za­tional evo­lu­tion. Among other things, it took over pub­lic health care mat­ters that had pre­vi­ously belonged to the Min­istry of the Inter­nal Affairs. Apart from these and sub­se­quent trans­for­ma­tions, the basic tasks of the Min­istry included the shap­ing of prin­ci­ples of social pol­icy and their imple­men­ta­tion.
One of the suc­cesses of the reborn state in the social sphere was the intro­duc­tion of reg­u­la­tions on national social pol­icy. They were intro­duced by the decrees of Józef Pił­sud­ski: an eight–hour work­ing day, pro­tec­tion of the pop­u­la­tion against the con­se­quences of war usury, con­di­tions for the evic­tion of the unem­ployed, cre­ation of a state office for the return of pris­on­ers of war, refugees, and work­ers as well as asso­ci­a­tions and a labor inspec­torate sub­or­di­nate to the Min­is­ter of Labor.
The out­break of World War II inter­rupted the work of the Min­istry of Social Wel­fare. It should be stressed, how­ever, that in the inter­war period it pre­pared and imple­mented many guide­lines in the field of Pol­ish social pol­icy. This achieve­ment made cer­tain activ­i­ties pos­si­ble fol­low­ing the Sec­ond World War and sub­se­quently in the free Poland after 1989.
Over the years 1987–1999, the Min­istry of Labor and Civic Pol­icy car­ried out tasks related to employ­ment, ben­e­fits, and social secu­rity.
After the intro­duc­tion of gov­ern­ment admin­is­tra­tion depart­ments, it was replaced by the Min­istry of Labor and Social Pol­icy. This office was served by the min­is­ter in charge of the labor and social secu­rity depart­ments. The office was later merged with the Min­istry of Econ­omy. After some time, the Min­istry of Econ­omy, Labor, and Social Pol­icy was divided into the Min­istry of Econ­omy and Labor and the Min­istry of Social Pol­icy. It was only the pre­vi­ous gov­ern­ment of the Law and Jus­tice Party that restored the Min­istry of Labor and Social Pol­icy.
In 2015, the Law and Jus­tice gov­ern­ment changed the name of the Min­istry. Pur­suant to the Direc­tive of the Coun­cil of Min­is­ters of Decem­ber 3, 2015, it was renamed the Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labor, and Social Pol­icy. This des­ig­na­tion fully reflects the scope of tasks of the min­istry. At the same time, it reaf­firms the fact that shap­ing con­di­tions for fam­ily devel­op­ment is a pri­or­ity for the gov­ern­ment.
The Law and Jus­tice gov­ern­ment places strong empha­sis on fam­ily wel­fare, which is in per­for­mance of the pro­vi­sion found in Arti­cle 71(1) of the Con­sti­tu­tion of the Repub­lic of Poland, which states that: In its social and eco­nomic pol­icy, the state takes into account the wel­fare of the fam­ily. Fam­i­lies fac­ing dif­fi­cult mate­r­ial and social sit­u­a­tions, espe­cially fam­i­lies with many chil­dren and single–parent fam­i­lies, have the right to spe­cial assis­tance from pub­lic author­i­ties.
This pro­vi­sion cor­re­sponds to the prin­ci­ple behind the eco­nomic sys­tem as expressed in Arti­cle 20 of the Con­sti­tu­tion that, sub­ject to Pol­ish con­di­tions, is based on a social mar­ket econ­omy — i.e. based on free­dom of eco­nomic activ­ity, pri­vate prop­erty and sol­i­dar­ity, dia­logue and coop­er­a­tion of social part­ners. Although this is a pro­gram­matic norm, the con­cept of social mar­ket econ­omy appears to be blurred, despite many attempts to define it. The social mar­ket econ­omy is con­sid­ered a third way. On the one hand it is dif­fer­ent from the lib­eral con­cept of a free mar­ket, while on the other from a planned econ­omy char­ac­ter­is­tic of total­i­tar­ian regimes.
It is impos­si­ble not to agree with the opin­ion expressed on the fol­low­ing pages of this pub­li­ca­tion that it is dif­fi­cult to pre­dict the direc­tion in which social pol­icy will evolve over the next few or few dozen years. This will depend on many vari­ables. There is no doubt, how­ever, that it should con­stantly respond to the needs of a chang­ing world.
Today, spe­cific chal­lenges encom­pass trends involv­ing demog­ra­phy, glob­al­iza­tion, automa­tion of pro­duc­tion processes, invest­ment in human cap­i­tal, and the knowledge–based econ­omy. This neces­si­tates the appli­ca­tion of new, pre­vi­ously unknown instru­ments, both in social pol­icy and in eco­nomic pol­icy, which are, after all, a sys­tem of inter­con­nected ves­sels. This mono­graph pro­vides a reli­able diag­no­sis as well as many inter­est­ing pre­dic­tions and guide­lines. Its edi­tors and the authors of indi­vid­ual chap­ters present numer­ous, often very com­plex, issues in areas of inter­est to social pol­icy with great exper­tise and in a very acces­si­ble way.
One Hun­dred Years of Pol­ish Social Pol­icy [in Pol­ish] is an extremely valu­able book in terms of its selec­tion of com­pre­hen­sive top­ics — the work of emi­nent experts in the field. It will inspire and con­tribute to fur­ther research on social poli­cies. This pub­li­ca­tion is an expres­sion of appre­ci­a­tion for those who have con­tributed to the devel­op­ment of social pol­icy the­ory and prac­tice.
The con­tent of the book, to which I have the honor and plea­sure of adding a few words of intro­duc­tion, should be read by all those who have an impact on the shap­ing of social and eco­nomic pol­icy in Poland. It will surely also prove inter­est­ing read­ing for sci­en­tists and social pol­icy prac­ti­tion­ers as well as stu­dents of the social sci­ences, includ­ing polit­i­cal sci­ence, social pol­icy, the fam­ily sci­ences, and soci­ol­ogy.
I would like to express my appre­ci­a­tion to the edi­tors and co–authors for pro­duc­ing this publication.

Julian Auleyt­ner (Pro­fes­sor, Janusz Kor­czak Ped­a­gog­i­cal Uni­ver­sity in War­saw)
The arti­cle dis­cusses the lin­eage of the Pol­ish social pol­icy between 1918 and 1939. The his­tor­i­cal con­text of the Pol­ish state’s social activ­ity was pre­sented. The text dis­cusses the social rights of cit­i­zens in the first Con­sti­tu­tion of 1921 and major sci­en­tific schools, which were engaged in social pol­icy from the point of view of the social­ist, lib­eral, and catholic val­ues. The author pre­sented the social state’s actions and dis­cussed the pre­cur­sors of social science.

Key words: his­tory of social pol­icy, social prob­lems, chil­dren, poverty, social rights, fore­run­ners of the social pol­icy, Pol­ish schools and sci­en­tific streams of social policy

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Ryszard Szarfen­berg (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of War­saw)
Michał Polakowski (PhD, Poz­nań Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Busi­ness)
The aim of the arti­cle was to explore the pos­si­bil­ity of explain­ing the devel­op­ment of social­ist social pol­icy with the­o­ries pro­posed as expla­na­tions for the west­ern demo­c­ra­tic and cap­i­tal­ist social pol­icy devel­op­ment. Sec­ond aim was to analyse the devel­op­ment of social pol­icy in Poland in the 1956–1980 period called in the Pol­ish lit­er­a­ture mature social­ism. The argu­ments were grounded on the aca­d­e­mic lit­er­a­ture from social­ist time and a later period. The sec­ond source was a review of the law acts related to labour and social enti­tle­ments. In both areas there was a grad­ual improve­ment after 1956 and 1970 labour protests. Strict sub­or­di­na­tion of the social pol­icy to the eco­nomic pol­icy was less­ened. Cov­er­age and gen­eros­ity of labour and social enti­tle­ments were expanded. Expla­na­tion of these devel­op­ments by west­ern the­o­ries of the eco­nomic growth with age­ing and bureau­cra­ti­za­tion or the dom­i­na­tion of left labour par­ties and trade unions is fraught with dif­fi­cul­ties and requires more research.

Key words: mature social­ism, social pol­icy, PRL, labour law, social pro­tec­tion, Poland

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Grażyna Firlit-Fesnak (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of War­saw)
Mirosław Grewiński (Pro­fes­sor, Janusz Kor­czak Ped­a­gog­i­cal Uni­ver­sity in War­saw)
The pub­li­ca­tion is an analy­sis of the selected aspects of Pol­ish social pol­icy in 2004–2017, its endoge­nous and exoge­nous deter­mi­nants, the results of polit­i­cal deci­sions on the state of devel­op­ment of key areas of social pol­icy and their impact on access to social rights of Pol­ish soci­ety. The sub­ject of stud­ies are such issues as the image of social devel­op­ment in Poland in the con­text of selected indi­ca­tors, devel­op­ment of fam­ily and senior pol­icy, the impact of Poland’s acces­sion to the Euro­pean Union on the direc­tion and scope of employ­ment pol­icy changes, labour mar­ket, social secu­rity, and effi­ciency of pub­lic admin­is­tra­tion, a depen­dence between the Pol­ish social pol­icy and eco­nomic emi­gra­tion of Poles.

Key words: eco­nomic emi­gra­tion, EU influ­ence on Pol­ish social pol­icy, fam­ily and senior pol­icy, social pol­icy, social secu­rity, social ser­vices, risk of poverty

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“Infor­ma­cja o rozmi­arach i kierunk­ach cza­sowej emi­gracji z Pol­ski w lat­ach 2004–2016” [Infor­ma­tion on the size and direc­tions of tem­po­rary migra­tion from Poland in the years 2004–2016] (2017), GUS, War­saw.
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Józefa Hrynkiewicz (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of War­saw)
Piotr Szukalski (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of Lodz)
The paper is aimed at pre­sen­ta­tion of how Pol­ish pop­u­la­tion pol­icy was affected by socio-political con­text in the last 100 years and how is imple­mented in the 21st cen­tury. The paper starts with pre­sen­ta­tion of what is the impor­tance of demo­graphic data for good state gov­er­nance. Later sec­tions are deal­ing with his­tory of pop­u­la­tion cen­suses, changes in per­cep­tion of the most impor­tant demo­graphic issues over the stud­ied period and a role played by the Gov­ern­men­tal Coun­cil for Pop­u­la­tion Pol­icy. The last sec­tion is focused on the most impor­tant ele­ments of the pop­u­la­tion pol­icy imple­mented in the last 20 years.

Key words: pop­u­la­tion pol­icy, fam­ily pol­icy, migra­tion pol­icy, senior cit­i­zen pol­icy, 20th cen­tury, 21st cen­tury Poland

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Stpiczyński T. (1993), “Spisy powszechne, statystyka ruchu nat­u­ral­nego i migracja lud­ności w bada­ni­ach Głównego Urzędu Statysty­cznego” [Cen­suses, nat­ural move­ment sta­tis­tics, and pop­u­la­tion migra­tion in Cen­tral Sta­tis­ti­cal Office sur­veys], in Rozwój demografii pol­skiej 1918–1993 [Devel­op­ment of Pol­ish demog­ra­phy 1918–1993], research con­fer­ence mate­ri­als, PTDGUS, War­saw.
“Strate­gia na rzecz Odpowiedzial­nego Roz­woju” [Strat­egy for respon­si­ble devel­op­ment] (2017), Min­istry of Devel­op­ment, War­saw.
Szczepaniak–Sienniak J. (2015), Poli­tyka rodzinna państwa we współczes­nej Polsce [Fam­ily pol­icy of the state in con­tem­po­rary Poland], Społeczeństwo i Ekono­mia [Soci­ety and Econ­omy], issue 2(4).
Szulc S. (1938), “Poli­tyka lud­noś­ciowa” [Pop­u­la­tion pol­icy], in W. Grab­ski and E. J. Rey­man (Edi­tors), Encyk­lo­pe­dia Nauk Poli­ty­cznych [Encyk­lo­pe­dia of polit­i­cal sci­ence], “Bib­lioteka Pol­ska” [Pol­ish Library] Social Insti­tute and Pub­lish­ing House, vol. III, War­saw.
Thomas W. I. and Znaniecki F. (1976), Chłop pol­ski w Europie i Ameryce [The Pol­ish peas­ant in Europe and Amer­ica], vol­umes 1–5, War­saw.
“Założe­nia poli­tyki lud­noś­ciowej. Pro­jekt” [Assump­tions of pop­u­la­tion pol­icy: Draft] (2013), Gov­ern­ment Pop­u­la­tion Coun­cil, War­saw,–statystyki–publicznej/rzadowa–rada–ludnosciowa/dokumenty–rzadowej–rady–ludnosciowej (Feb­ru­ary 13, 2018).

Wiesław Koczur (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics in Katow­ice)
Tadeusz Szum­licz (Pro­fes­sor, War­saw School of Eco­nom­ics)
The aim of this paper is to present the direc­tions of changes in the Pol­ish social insur­ance sys­tem in the years 1919–2017. The arti­cle presents the ori­gin and devel­op­ment of Pol­ish social insur­ance in the inter­war period, the fate of that insur­ance dur­ing Ger­man occu­pa­tion (1939–1945), and the devel­op­ment of solu­tions in the field of post-World War II insur­ance, divided into period of Pol­ish People’s Repub­lic and time after socio-economic and polit­i­cal trans­for­ma­tion from 1989. In the paper, par­tic­u­lar atten­tion was paid to the issues of the sub­jec­tive scope of the social insur­ance sys­tem, the scope of insur­ance cov­er­age imple­mented, as well as orga­ni­za­tional and finan­cial aspects of its functioning.

Key words: social secu­rity sys­tem, social insur­ance sys­tem, old-age pen­sion insur­ance, social secu­rity law

“Bez­pieczeństwo dzięki różnorod­ności. Reforma sys­temu emerytalno–rentowego w Polsce” [Secu­rity through diver­sity: Reform of the retire­ment pen­sion and ben­e­fit sys­tem in Poland] (1997), Office of the Gov­ern­ment Plenipo­ten­tiary for Social Secu­rity Reform, War­saw, Feb­ru­ary, sec­ond revised ver­sion. Sup­ple­mented ver­sions of this draft were pre­sented in May and June of 1997.
Jędrasik–Jankowska I. (2003), Ubez­piecze­nie społeczne, t. 1 – Część ogólna [Social secu­rity, vol. 1, Gen­eral sec­tion], Lex­is­Nexis, War­saw.
Koczur W. (2010), Resty­tucja zdol­ności do pracy w pol­skim powszech­nym sys­temie ubez­pieczeń społecznych [Resti­tu­tion of the abil­ity to work in the Pol­ish uni­ver­sal social secu­rity sys­tem], Katow­ice Uni­ver­sity of the Eco­nom­ics Pub­lish­ing House, Katow­ice.
Muszal­ski W. (2004), Ubez­piecze­nie społeczne [Social insur­ance], PWN Sci­en­tific Pub­lish­ers, War­saw.
Szum­licz T. (2005), Ubez­piecze­nie społeczne. Teo­ria dla prak­tyki [Social insur­ance: The­ory for prac­tice], Branta, Bydgoszcz–Warsaw.
Zieliński T. (1994), Ubez­pieczenia społeczne pra­cown­ików [Employee social insur­ance], PWN Sci­en­tific Pub­lish­ers, Warsaw.

Elż­bi­eta Bojanowska (PhD, Car­di­nal Ste­fan Wyszyński Uni­ver­sity in War­saw)
Jerzy Krzyszkowski (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of Human­i­ties and Life Sci­ence in Czesto­chowa)
The arti­cle is about the gen­e­sis and evo­lu­tion of social ser­vices in Poland. The authors pre­sented the Pol­ish way of build­ing social ser­vices in Poland until 1939, as well as the way of func­tion­ing of social ser­vices in the People’s Repub­lic of Poland and dur­ing the years 1990–2015. The last chap­ter of the arti­cle is focused on the reforms of social ser­vices in Poland after 2015. In the con­clu­sion of the arti­cle, the authors state that his­tory of social ser­vices in Poland shows the never end­ing efforts of meet­ing new social needs, as well as grow­ing com­plex­ity and inter­nal diver­sity of orga­ni­za­tional struc­tures of social ser­vices that require inte­gra­tion and coordination.

Key words: social ser­vice, pub­lic assis­tance, insti­tu­tion, orga­ni­za­tional structures

“Benefic­jenci środowiskowej pomocy społecznej w 2016 r.” [Ben­e­fi­cia­ries of com­mu­nity social assis­tance in 2016] (2017), GUS, Cra­cow.
Rym­sza M. (2017), “Służby społeczne i usługi społeczne: pro­gramowanie poli­tyk pub­licznych [Social ser­vices and social ser­vices: The pro­gram­ming of pub­lic pol­icy], pre­sented at the “Social Ser­vices in Pub­lic Pol­icy in Poland” Con­fer­ence, War­saw, Novem­ber 30, 2017.
Szarfen­berg R. (2015), “Pomoc społeczna 1990–2014. Sukcesy, porażki, wyzwa­nia” [Social assis­tance 1990–2014: Suc­cesses, fail­ures, and chal­lenges], pre­sented dur­ing the “Twenty–Five Years of Social Assis­tance: Expe­ri­ences and Chal­lenges” MOPR Con­fer­ence, Gdańsk, May 27, 2015.

Zenon Wiśniewski (Pro­fes­sor, Nico­laus Coper­ni­cus Uni­ver­sity in Toruń)
Łukasz Arendt (Pro­fes­sor, Insti­tute of Labour and Social Stud­ies)
The study presents an analy­sis of the evo­lu­tion and effects of labour mar­ket pol­icy in the inter­war period and after the eco­nomic tran­si­tion in Poland. Labour mar­ket pol­icy was cre­ated from scratch in 1918–1939. A sim­i­lar sit­u­a­tion took place after 1989, as labour mar­ket pol­icy was prac­ti­cally non-existent dur­ing the period of cen­tral­ly­planned econ­omy. There has been a per­cep­ti­ble change in the pol­icy pri­or­i­ties in recent years – it has shifted from income-protection mea­sures to active instru­ments, which should be assessed pos­i­tively. Nev­er­the­less, it seems that the capac­ity of labour mar­ket pol­icy in Poland has not been fully uti­lized, hence the pos­tu­late of fur­ther reforms in order to increase the effec­tive­ness of its impact was presented.

Key words: active labour mar­ket pol­icy, net and gross effi­ciency, propen­sity score match­ing, unem­ploy­ment

Anioł W. (2014), “Państwo pracy w Skan­dy­nawii – między ciągłoś­cią a zmi­aną” [The work­ing state in Scan­di­navia: Between con­ti­nu­ity and change], Poli­tyka Społeczna [Social Pol­icy], issue 4.
Caliendo M., Hujer R., and Thom­sen S. (2005), “The Employ­ment Effect of Job Cre­ation Schemes in Ger­many: A Micro­econo­met­ric Eval­u­a­tion,” IZA Dis­cus­sion Paper, No. 1512.
Card D., Kluve J., and Weber A. (2010), “Active Labor Mar­ket Pol­icy Eval­u­a­tions: A Meta–Analysis,” NBER Work­ing Paper, No. 1617.
Din­geldey I. (2011), Der aktivierende Wohlfahrtsstaat: Gov­er­nance der Arbeits­mark­t­poli­tik in Däne­mark, Großbri­tan­nien und Deutsch­land (Schriften des Zen­trums für Sozialpoli­tik), Cam­pus Ver­lag, Bre­men.
Dolecka M. (2012), “Przy­czyny i charak­ter bezrobo­cia w Lublinie w okre­sie między­wo­jen­nym” [The causes and nature of unem­ploy­ment in Lublin in the inter­war period], Annales Uni­ver­si­tatis Marie Curie–Sklodowska, issue 1.
Dolecka M. and Raczkiewicz D. (2014), “Bezrobo­cie w Polsce w okre­sie między­wo­jen­nym w kon­tekś­cie jakości danych w spisach lud­ności” [Unem­ploy­ment in Poland in the inter­war period in the con­text of data qual­ity in pop­u­la­tion cen­suses], Annales Uni­ver­si­tatis Mariae Curie–Sklodowska, issue 2.
Hrynkiewicz J. (1999), Fun­dusz pracy [Labor Fund], Sejm Chancery, Office of Stud­ies and Exper­tise, Infor­ma­tion no. 303.
Jędruszczak H. (1964), “Rynek pracy w Polsce między­wo­jen­nej” [The labor mar­ket in inter­war Poland], in Najnowsze Dzieje Pol­ski. Mate­ri­ały i Stu­dia z Okresu 1914–1939 [Recent His­tory of Poland: Mate­ri­als and Stud­ies from the 1914–1939 Period], vol. VII.
Mlonek K. (1999), Bezrobo­cie w Polsce w XX wieku w świ­etle badań [Unem­ploy­ment in Poland in the 20th cen­tury in the light of research], National Labor Office, War­saw.
MRPiPS (2017), Efek­ty­wność pod­sta­wowych form akty­wiz­a­cji zawodowej real­i­zowanych w ramach pro­gramów na rzecz pro­mocji zatrud­nienia, łagodzenia skutków bezrobo­cia i akty­wiz­a­cji zawodowej w 2016 r. [Effec­tive­ness of basic forms of eco­nomic acti­va­tion imple­mented within pro­grams for employ­ment pro­mo­tion, mit­i­gat­ing the effects of unem­ploy­ment and eco­nomic acti­va­tion in 2016], Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labor, and Social Pol­icy, War­saw.
Nagel K. and Sman­dek I. M. (2010), Poli­tyka rynku pracy i źródła jej finan­sowa­nia [Labor mar­ket pol­icy and sources of financ­ing], Katow­ice Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics Pub­lish­ing House, Katow­ice.
Szylko–Skoczny M. (2017), “Poli­tyka rynku pracy w Polsce” [Labor mar­ket pol­icy in Poland], in B. Szatur-Jaworska (Edi­tor), Per­spek­tywy roz­woju pol­skiej poli­tyki społecznej – doświad­czenia i wyzwa­nia [Per­spec­tives for the devel­op­ment of Pol­ish social pol­icy: Expe­ri­ences and chal­lenges], Ellip­sis Pub­lish­ing House, War­saw.
Szylko–Skoczny M. (2004), Poli­tyka społeczna wobec bezrobo­cia w Trze­ciej Rzeczy­pospo­litej [Social pol­icy towards unem­ploy­ment in the Third Pol­ish Repub­lic], ASPRAJR Pub­lish­ing House, War­saw.
Wiśniewski Z. (1994), Poli­tyka zatrud­nienia i rynku pracy w Repub­lice Fed­er­al­nej Niemiec [Employ­ment and labor mar­ket pol­icy in the Fed­eral Repub­lic of Ger­many], Nico­laus Coper­ni­cus Uni­ver­sity, Toruń.
Wiśniewski Z. and Zawadzki K., Edi­tors (2011), Efek­ty­wność poli­tyki rynku pracy w Polsce [Effec­tive­ness of labor mar­ket pol­icy in Poland], UMKWUP, Toruń.

Gertruda Uścińska (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of War­saw)
Maciej Żukowski (Pro­fes­sor, Poz­nań Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Busi­ness)
The arti­cle dis­cusses the impact of Euro­pean inte­gra­tion on social pol­icy in Poland. Though social pol­icy remains mainly the com­pe­tence of the EU mem­ber states, EU impact on social pol­icy has been clear, already since Poland’s prepa­ra­tion to the mem­ber­ship, thus for more than 20 years. Free move­ment of work­ers was the most dif­fi­cult issue dur­ing the acces­sion nego­ti­a­tions, due to fears of the old mem­ber states. Dur­ing the inte­gra­tion, Pol­ish law, espe­cially in the area of labour law, was adjusted to the EU law. Poland entered the EU sys­tem of social secu­rity coor­di­na­tion An indi­rect impact of inte­gra­tion has been sub­stan­tial, espe­cially through con­tribut­ing to catch­ing up in the level of development.

Key words: Euro­pean Union, Pol­ish social pol­icy, Euro­pean inte­gra­tion, con­se­quences, EU law, social secu­rity coor­di­na­tion

Anioł W. (2003), Poli­tyka soc­jalna Unii Europe­jskiej [Social pol­icy of the Euro­pean Union], Sejm Pub­lish­ing House, War­saw.
Anioł W. (2017), “Od unii gospo­dar­czej do unii soc­jal­nej w stre­fie euro? Znacze­nie poli­tyki społecznej w inte­gracji europe­jskiej” [From eco­nomic union to social union in the euro area? The impor­tance of social pol­icy in Euro­pean inte­gra­tion], in B. Szatur–Jaworska (Edi­tor), Per­spek­tywy roz­woju pol­skiej poli­tyki społecznej — doświad­czenia i wyzwa­nia [Per­spec­tives for the devel­op­ment of Pol­ish social pol­icy: Expe­ri­ences and chal­lenges], Insti­tute of Social Pol­icy of the Uni­ver­sity of War­saw, War­saw.
Bińczycka–Majewska T. (2004), “Pod­sta­wowe zagad­nienia koor­dy­nacji sys­temów zabez­pieczenia społecznego w ramach Unii Europe­jskiej” [Basic issues relat­ing to the coor­di­na­tion of social secu­rity sys­tems within the Euro­pean Union], in U. Jack­owiak and A. Malaka (Edi­tors), Prob­lemy ubez­pieczeń społecznych w 70–lecie ist­nienia Zakładu Ubez­pieczeń Społecznych [Issues of social insur­ance in the 70th anniver­sary of the Social Insur­ance Insti­tu­tion (ZUS)], Pol­ish Social Insur­ance Asso­ci­a­tion, Wrocław.
Duszczyk M. (2002), Swo­bodny przepływ pra­cown­ików w negoc­jac­jach o członkostwo Pol­ski w Unii Europe­jskiej [Free move­ment of work­ers in nego­ti­a­tions on Poland’s mem­ber­ship in the Euro­pean Union], Insti­tute of Social Pol­icy of the Uni­ver­sity of War­saw, War­saw.
Goli­nowska S., Heng­sten­berg P., and Żukowski M., Edi­tors (2009), Diver­sity and Com­mon­al­ity in Euro­pean Social Poli­cies: The Forg­ing of a Euro­pean Social Model, Scholar Sci­en­tific Pub­lish­ers, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, War­saw.
Kuś A., Edi­tor (2010), Prawo Unii Europe­jskiej z uwzględ­nie­niem trak­tatu z Lizbony [Euro­pean Union law, tak­ing into account the Treaty of Lis­bon], Catholic Uni­ver­sity of Lublin, Lublin.
Małuszyńska E. and Gruch­man B., Edi­tors (2010), Kom­pendium wiedzy o Unii Europe­jskiej [A com­pendium of knowl­edge about the Euro­pean Union], PWN Sci­en­tific Pub­lish­ers, Warszawa, pp. 281–301.
Gov­ern­ment Plenipo­ten­tiary for Nego­ti­a­tions for Mem­ber­ship of the Repub­lic of Poland in the Euro­pean Union, “Stanowiska Pol­ski w ramach negoc­jacji o członkostwo Rzeczy­pospo­litej Pol­skiej w Unii Europe­jskiej” [Posi­tions of Poland in the Nego­ti­a­tions for Mem­ber­ship of the Repub­lic of Poland in the Euro­pean Union], Chan­cellery of the Prime Min­is­ter, War­saw, 2010.
Roberts S. (2017), “The UK and Social Secu­rity Coor­di­na­tion after Brexit: Rein­vent­ing the Wheel or Mad Hatter’s Tea Party?” Social Secu­rity: The­ory, Law, Prac­tice,” issue 6, pp. 13–27.
Świątkowski A. (2000), Europe­jskie prawo soc­jalne [Euro­pean social law], vol. 3, ABC Pub­lish­ing House, War­saw.
Uścińska G. (2005a), Europe­jskie stan­dardy zabez­pieczenia społecznego a współczesne rozwiąza­nia pol­skie [Euro­pean social secu­rity stan­dards and con­tem­po­rary Pol­ish solu­tions], Insti­tute of Labour and Social Stud­ies, War­saw.
Uścińska G. (2005b), Świad­czenia z zabez­pieczenia społecznego w reg­u­lac­jach między­nar­o­dowych i pol­s­kich. Studium porów­naw­cze [Social secu­rity ben­e­fits in inter­na­tional and Pol­ish reg­u­la­tions: Com­par­a­tive study], Insti­tute of Labour and Social Stud­ies, War­saw.
Uścińska G. (2010), “Koor­dy­nacja sys­temów zabez­pieczenia społecznego jako instru­ment roz­woju swo­body przepływu osób. Nowe reg­u­lacje uni­jne” [Coor­di­na­tion of social secu­rity sys­tems as an instru­ment to develop the free move­ment of per­sons: New EU reg­u­la­tions], Poli­tyka Społeczna [Social Pol­icy], issue 11–12, pp. 1–5.
Uścińska G. (2013), Zabez­piecze­nie społeczne osób korzys­ta­ją­cych z prawa do przemieszcza­nia się w Unii Europe­jskiej [Social secu­rity for per­sons enjoy­ing the right of move­ment within the Euro­pean Union], Wolters Kluwer, War­saw.
Uścińska G. (2016), “Brexit — kon­sek­wencje prawne i społeczne dla rynku pracy i zabez­pieczenia społecznego” [Brexit: Legal and social con­se­quences for the labor mar­ket and social secu­rity], Poli­tyka Społeczna [Social Pol­icy], issue 10, pp. 1–5.
Uścińska G. and Kazenas B. (2002), Koor­dy­nacja pol­skiego sys­temu zabez­pieczenia społecznego z reg­u­lac­jami uni­jnymi. Eksper­tyzy prawne [Coor­di­na­tion of the Pol­ish social secu­rity sys­tem with EU reg­u­la­tions: Legal expert stud­ies], Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labour, and Social Pol­icy, War­saw.
Uścińska G., Kazenas B., Edi­tor (2005), Orzeczenia Europe­jskiego Try­bunału Spraw­iedli­wości z zakresu zabez­pieczenia społecznego [Rul­ings of the Euro­pean Court of Jus­tice in the field of social secu­rity], broad and abbre­vi­ated ver­sion, Min­istry of Labour, and Social Pol­icy, War­saw.
Van­den­broucke F. and Van­her­cke B. (2014), A Euro­pean Social Union: 10 Tough Nuts to Crack, Back­ground Report for the Friends of Europe High–Level Group on “Social Union”, Friends of Europe, Brus­sels.
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Żukowski M. (2015), “Poli­tyka społeczna” [Social pol­icy], in E. Małuszyńska and G. Mazur (Edi­tors), Unia Europe­jska 2014+ [Euro­pean Union 2014+], Difin, War­saw.

Mirosław Księżopol­ski (Pro­fes­sor, Uni­ver­sity of War­saw)
Piotr Michoń (Pro­fes­sor, Poz­nań Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Busi­ness)
The pur­pose of the paper is to present sce­nar­ios for the devel­op­ment of Pol­ish social pol­icy over the next decades. We are con­sid­er­ing three such sce­nar­ios. The first one fore­sees the con­tin­u­a­tion of the con­cen­tra­tion of social pol­icy on its adap­ta­tion to cur­rent chal­lenges spe­cific to Poland. The sec­ond sce­nario assumes a grad­ual change of pri­or­i­ties for exter­nal chal­lenges related to glob­al­iza­tion processes, changes in the struc­ture of devel­oped coun­tries’ economies, as well as tech­no­log­i­cal progress and the con­struc­tion of a knowledge-based econ­omy. The final sce­nario is an attempt to answer the ques­tion of what the shape of the wel­fare state will be depend­ing on dif­fer­ent ways of respond­ing to the chal­lenges that will be ahead of it and on the goals that can be achieved at that time. The sce­nar­ios pre­sented by us are not of a prog­nos­tic nature, they are rather sub­jec­tive reflec­tions on prob­a­ble devel­op­ment trends in the area of social policy.

Key words: Poland, the future of social pol­icy, trans­for­ma­tion of wel­fare state, transformation

Inglot T. (2010), Wel­fare States w Europie Środkowo–Wschodniej w lat­ach 1919–2004 [Wel­fare states in Cen­tral and East­ern Europe from 1919 to 2004], Ellip­sis and the TPW Uni­ver­sity of Ped­a­gogy Pub­lish­ing House, War­saw.
Księżopol­ski M. (2011), “Dokąd zmierza poli­tyka społeczna” [Where is social pol­icy headed], Prob­lemy Poli­tyki Społecznej [Prob­lems of Social Pol­icy], issue 16.
Pier­son P. (1994), Dis­man­tling the Wel­fare State? Rea­gan, Thatcher and the Pol­i­tics of Retrench­ment, Cam­bridge Uni­ver­sity Press, Cambridge.

About the authors

Łukasz Arendt – Ph.D., Habil. in eco­nomic sci­ences, direc­tor of the Insti­tute of Labor and Social Stud­ies, Adjunct Pro­fes­sor with the Depart­ment of Eco­nomic Pol­icy at the Uni­ver­sity of Lodz. Par­tic­i­pated in many national and inter­na­tional research projects com­mis­sioned by the Directorate–General for Edu­ca­tion and Cul­ture, the Euro­pean Par­lia­ment, and CEDEFOP. Research inter­ests include labor mar­ket issues and the impact of infor­ma­tion and telecom­mu­ni­ca­tion tech­nolo­gies on the econ­omy, employ­ment pro­jec­tions, devel­op­ment of an infor­ma­tion soci­ety, dig­i­tal exclu­sion, and changes in the edu­ca­tion sys­tem induced by the needs of the labor mar­ket.

Julian Auleyt­ner – Pro­fes­sor Ordi­nar­ius, Ph.D., Habil. in eco­nomic sci­ences, social pol­icy sci­en­tist, uni­ver­sity lec­turer, author of over 300 pub­li­ca­tions, the Poli­tyka społeczna w Polsce i w świecie [Social pol­icy in Poland and in the world] text­book (2012), and the Finan­sowanie poli­tyki społecznej [Financ­ing social pol­icy] study (2017). Long–time Pres­i­dent of the Pol­ish Soci­ety for Social Pol­icy, mem­ber of sev­eral sci­en­tific com­mit­tees of the Pol­ish Acad­emy of Sci­ences. Co–founder and long–time Rec­tor of Janusz Kor­czak Ped­a­gog­i­cal Uni­ver­sity in War­saw.

Elż­bi­eta Bojanowska – Ph.D. in human­i­ties, soci­ol­o­gist, social pol­icy sci­en­tist, Adjunct Pro­fes­sor at the Insti­tute of Soci­ol­ogy of the Car­di­nal Ste­fan Wyszyński Uni­ver­sity in War­saw, Under­sec­re­tary of State of the Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labor, and Social Pol­icy with respon­si­bil­ity for social wel­fare and senior cit­i­zen pol­icy. Mem­ber of the Pol­ish Soci­o­log­i­cal Soci­ety, the Gov­ern­ment Pop­u­la­tion Coun­cil, the Steer­ing Com­mit­tee of the National Health Pro­gram, the Reduc­tion of Energy Defi­ciency in Poland Group, and the National Revi­tal­iza­tion Com­mit­tee. Main research areas include pop­u­la­tion age­ing and related socio–economic con­se­quences, inter­gen­er­a­tional rela­tions, and issues related to poverty and social exclu­sion.

Grażyna Firlit-Fesnak – Pro­fes­sor Ordi­nar­ius, Ph.D., Habil. in human­i­ties in the field of the polit­i­cal sci­ences, polit­i­cal sci­en­tist, Head of the Depart­ment of Migra­tion and Eth­nic Rela­tions at the Insti­tute of Social Pol­icy, Fac­ulty of Polit­i­cal Sci­ences and Inter­na­tional Stud­ies, Uni­ver­sity of War­saw. Deputy Direc­tor for Research and Coop­er­a­tion with For­eign Coun­tries in 1995–2007, and Direc­tor of the Insti­tute of Social Pol­icy in 2007–2008. Areas of sci­en­tific work include fam­ily issues and poli­cies, gen­der inequal­i­ties, and migra­tion and migra­tion poli­cies. Mem­ber of the Migra­tion Research Com­mit­tee of the Pol­ish Acad­emy of Sci­ences since 2011.

Mirosław Grewiński – Ph.D., Habil. in social sci­ences, Pro­fes­sor Extra­or­di­nar­ius and Deputy Rec­tor of Janusz Kor­czak Ped­a­gog­i­cal Uni­ver­sity in War­saw. Pres­i­dent of the Man­age­ment Board of the Pol­ish Soci­ety for Social Pol­icy and Pres­i­dent of the Man­age­ment Board of the Soci­ety for Uni­ver­sal Knowl­edge. Mem­ber of the Cen­tral Exam­i­na­tion Com­mis­sion for Spe­cial­i­sa­tion in the Pro­fes­sion of Social Worker at the Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labor, and Social Pol­icy as well as other national bod­ies. Mem­ber of the Euro­pean Social Net­work and Euro­pean Com­mis­sion expert on social pol­icy. Author of over 300 sci­en­tific pub­li­ca­tions. Research inter­ests include trans­for­ma­tions of the wel­fare state, multi–sectorial social pol­icy, social ser­vices, social inno­va­tion, and the social econ­omy.

Józefa Hrynkiewicz – Pro­fes­sor Ordi­nar­ius, Ph.D., Habil. in human­i­ties, soci­ol­o­gist, research worker at the Insti­tute of Applied Social Sci­ences, Uni­ver­sity of War­saw. Pre­vi­ously Rec­tor of the Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Human­i­ties in Skierniewice (1997–2006), Direc­tor of the National School of Pub­lic Admin­is­tra­tion (2006–2008) as well as advi­sor on social pol­icy to Prime Min­is­ter Jan Olszewski. Deputy Chair­woman of the Eco­nomic and Social Coun­cil of the Gov­ern­ment Cen­ter for Strate­gic Stud­ies and Direc­tor of the Social Pol­icy Pro­gram at the Insti­tute of Pub­lic Affairs. Sat on the Social Coun­cil of the Pol­ish Epis­co­pate. Mem­ber of the National Devel­op­ment Coun­cil under Pres­i­dent Lech Kaczyński. Mem­ber of the Sejm [Par­lia­ment] since 2011.

Wiesław Koczur – Ph.D., Habil. in eco­nomic sci­ences, Pro­fes­sor Extra­or­di­nar­ius with the Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics in Katow­ice, Head of the Depart­ment of Social Pol­icy at the Fac­ulty of Eco­nom­ics of the Uni­ver­sity. Mem­ber of the Man­age­ment Board of the Pol­ish Soci­ety for Social Pol­icy. Spe­cial­izes in social secu­rity issues, with par­tic­u­lar empha­sis on social insur­ance. Author of over 140 sci­en­tific pub­li­ca­tions. Sci­en­tific edi­tor of twelve col­lec­tive works. Par­tic­i­pant of many national and inter­na­tional research projects.

Jerzy Krzyszkowski – Ph.D., Habil. in the soci­ol­ogy of social pol­icy, Pro­fes­sor with the Depart­ment of Labor and Social Pol­icy at the Fac­ulty of Eco­nom­ics and Soci­ol­ogy of the Uni­ver­sity of Lodz and with the Insti­tute of Labor and Social Stud­ies in War­saw. Author of over 100 sci­en­tific arti­cles, author and co–author and edi­tor of twenty–two books. Mem­ber of the Man­age­ment Board of the Pol­ish Soci­ety for Social Pol­icy, the Senior Cit­i­zen Pol­icy Coun­cil at the Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labor, and Social Pol­icy, and the Cen­tral Exam­i­na­tion Com­mis­sion for Spe­cial­i­sa­tion in the Occu­pa­tion of Social Worker at the Min­istry of Fam­ily, Labor, and Social Pol­icy. Sci­en­tific inter­ests include social pol­icy, social wel­fare, geron­tol­ogy, and social work.

Mirosław Księżopol­ski – Pro­fes­sor Ordi­nar­ius, Ph.D., Habil. in human­i­ties, research worker and Chair­man of the Sci­en­tific Coun­cil of the Insti­tute of Social Pol­icy of the Uni­ver­sity of War­saw. Inter­ests include com­par­a­tive social pol­icy, social secu­rity, and the shap­ing and speci­ficity of social pol­icy in Poland in the period of polit­i­cal trans­for­ma­tion. In recent years focused mainly on the char­ac­ter­is­tics of social pol­icy mod­els func­tion­ing in devel­oped coun­tries (includ­ing Poland), iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of the most impor­tant chal­lenges and dilem­mas fac­ing such pol­icy today, and analy­sis of strate­gies for solv­ing major social issues.

Piotr Michoń – Ph.D., Habil. in eco­nomic sci­ences, staff mem­ber of the Depart­ment of Labor and Social Pol­icy at the Poz­nań Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Busi­ness. Spe­cial­izes in fam­ily pol­icy, the labor mar­ket, and indi­vid­ual well–being, includ­ing divi­sion of labor in house­holds, and com­bin­ing work and fam­ily respon­si­bil­i­ties. Mem­ber of the Board of the Euro­pean Net­work for Social Pol­icy Analy­sis (ESPAnet) and the Pol­ish Soci­ety for Social Pol­icy. Led Pol­ish teams in numer­ous inter­na­tional projects. Author of many sci­en­tific pub­li­ca­tions, includ­ing the mono­graph Ekono­mia szczęś­cia [The eco­nom­ics of hap­pi­ness]. Runs the sci­ence blog.

Michał Polakowski – Ph.D. in human­i­ties, staff mem­ber of the Depart­ment of Labor and Social Pol­icy at the Poz­nań Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Busi­ness imple­ment­ing the “Crises and Reforms of Pen­sion Sys­tems in Europe: Com­par­a­tive Analy­sis” project financed by the National Sci­ence Cen­ter. Research inter­ests include issues involv­ing the polit­i­cal econ­omy of the wel­fare state and the func­tion­ing of pen­sion sys­tems, labor mar­ket, and migra­tion.

Ryszard Szarfen­berg – Ph.D., Habil. in human­i­ties, Head of the Social Assis­tance and Inte­gra­tion Lab­o­ra­tory at the Insti­tute of Social Pol­icy of the Uni­ver­sity of War­saw. Chair­man of the Exec­u­tive Board of the Pol­ish Com­mit­tee of the Euro­pean Anti–Poverty Net­work, expert col­lab­o­rat­ing with the Pol­ish Ombuds­man. Pre­vi­ously a mem­ber of the Man­age­ment Board of the Pol­ish Soci­ety for Social Pol­icy (2008–2016), expert with the Euro­pean Min­i­mum Income Net­work (2014, 2017). Mem­ber of the Edi­to­r­ial Board of the quar­terly Prob­lemy Poli­tyki Społecznej. Stu­dia i Dyskusje [Social Pol­icy Issues: Stud­ies and Dis­cus­sions]. Spe­cial­izes in social pol­icy and pub­lic pol­icy issues. Author of many pub­li­ca­tions, includ­ing the mono­graph Kry­tyka i afir­ma­cja poli­tyki społecznej [A cri­tique and affir­ma­tion of social pol­icy] (2008), which was awarded by the Com­mit­tee on Labor Sci­ences and Social Pol­icy of the Pol­ish Acad­emy of Sci­ences.

Piotr Szukalski – Ph.D., Habil. in eco­nomic sci­ences, Pro­fes­sor with the Depart­ment of Applied Soci­ol­ogy and Social Work of the Uni­ver­sity of Lodz. Spe­cial­izes in issues on the bor­ders of demog­ra­phy, social geron­tol­ogy, and social pol­icy. Research focuses on the course of the age­ing process of the Pol­ish pop­u­la­tion, tak­ing into account its dual nature and its con­se­quences, the trans­for­ma­tion of the Pol­ish fam­ily model, and inter­gen­er­a­tional rela­tions at the micro and macro lev­els. Mem­ber of the Fore­casts and Demo­graphic Sci­ences Com­mit­tees of the Pol­ish Acad­emy of Sci­ences. Mem­ber of the National Devel­op­ment Coun­cil and the Gov­ern­ment Pop­u­la­tion Coun­cil.

Tadeusz Szum­licz – Pro­fes­sor of eco­nomic sci­ences. Serv­ing Head of the Depart­ment of Social Insur­ance and Post­grad­u­ate Insur­ance Stud­ies at the War­saw School of Eco­nom­ics. Author of more than 350 pub­li­ca­tions on social pol­icy, with par­tic­u­lar empha­sis on social secu­rity, includ­ing retire­ment and health secu­rity and insur­ance, the the­o­ret­i­cal aspects of the insur­ance method, insur­ance pol­icy, and house­hold insur­ance cov­er­age. Pres­i­dent of the Insti­tute for Social Risk Man­age­ment Foun­da­tion. Editor–in–Chief of Wiado­mości Ubez­pieczeniowych [Insur­ance News]. Mem­ber of the Pro­gram Coun­cil of the Ubez­pieczenia Społeczne. Teo­ria i prak­tyka [Social Insur­ance: The­ory and prac­tice] peri­od­i­cal.

Gertruda Uścińska – Pro­fes­sor, Ph.D., Habil. in human­i­ties, researcher with the Insti­tute of Social Pol­icy of the Uni­ver­sity of War­saw and the Depart­ment of Labor Law and Social Secu­rity of the Insti­tute of Labor and Social Stud­ies. Pres­i­dent of the Social Insur­ance Insti­tu­tion (ZUS). Expert in the field of the right to free move­ment of work­ers and coor­di­na­tion of social secu­rity sys­tems in the Euro­pean Union. Author of many sci­en­tific pub­li­ca­tions. Editor–in–Chief of the Zabez­piecze­nie Społeczne. Teo­ria, Prawo, Prak­tyka [Social Secu­rity: The­ory, Law, Prac­tice] peri­od­i­cal. Mem­ber of the Com­mit­tee on Labor and Social Pol­icy of the Pol­ish Acad­emy of Sci­ences.

Zenon Wiśniewski – Pro­fes­sor Ordi­nar­ius, Ph.D., Habil. in eco­nomic sci­ences, Head of the Depart­ment of Labor Resource Man­age­ment at the Nico­laus Coper­ni­cus Uni­ver­sity in Toruń. Inter­ests include employ­ment and labor mar­ket issues, in par­tic­u­lar with the labor mar­ket pol­icy of the Euro­pean Union coun­tries. Pub­lished 250 sci­en­tific papers, includ­ing 50 stud­ies pub­lished in renowned for­eign jour­nals and col­lec­tive pub­li­ca­tions. Received many pres­ti­gious for­eign research grants. Par­tic­i­pates in inter­na­tional research and under­takes research projects financed by Euro­pean funds.

Maciej Żukowski – Pro­fes­sor, Ph.D., Habil. in eco­nomic sci­ences, Rec­tor of the Poz­nań Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Busi­ness, Pro­fes­sor with the Depart­ment of Labor and Social Pol­icy of Poz­nań Uni­ver­sity of Eco­nom­ics and Busi­ness. Expert in the field of social pol­icy, includ­ing in par­tic­u­lar retire­ment pen­sion secu­rity, social pol­icy in the Euro­pean Union, and labor mar­kets. Fel­low of the Alexan­der von Hum­boldt Foun­da­tion at the Uni­ver­sity of Bre­men. Mem­ber of the Com­mit­tee on Labor and Social Pol­icy of the Pol­ish Acad­emy of Sci­ences. Chair­man of the Board of the Pol­ish Social Insur­ance Association.



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