Nr 1 (14) 2018
100 YEARS SOCIAL POLICY IN POLAND
Table of Contents 1/2018 English Edition
INTRODUCTION – Rafał Wiśniewski
PREFACE – Elżbieta Rafalska
SOCIAL ISSUES AND THEIR SOLVING IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD – Julian Auleytner
SOCIAL POLICY DURING MATURE SOCIALISM PERIOD 1956–1980 – Michał Polakowski, Ryszard Szarfenberg
SOCIAL POLICY DURING POLAND’S MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION 2004–2017 – Grażyna Firlit-Fesnak, Mirosław Grewiński
POPULATION POLICY: BETWEEN SHAPING DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES AND REACTING TO THEM – Józefa Hrynkiewicz, Piotr Szukalski
SOCIAL INSURANCE: CONFRONTATION OF SOLIDARITY AND INDIVIDUALISM – Wiesław Koczur, Tadeusz Szumlicz
SOCIAL ASSISTANCE: FROM CARE TO SOCIAL SERVICES – Elżbieta Bojanowska, Jerzy Krzyszkowski
LABOUR MARKET POLICY: FROM INCOME PROTECTION TO ACTIVE MEASURES – Zenon Wiśniewski, Łukasz Arendt
THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION FOR POLISH SOCIAL POLICY – Gertruda Uścińska, Maciej Żukowski
SCENARIOS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLISH SOCIAL POLICY OVER THE NEXT DECADES – Mirosław Księżopolski, Piotr Michoń
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Rafał Wiśniewski (Professor,The Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University)
INTRODUCTION (s. 1)
In the social awareness of Poles, 2018 stands out due to the celebration of the 100th anniversary of Poland’s regaining of its independence. 1 November 11th, Independence Day, was particularly festive. It was a unique moment in which Poles enjoyed the fact that they belonged to a great civic community. Polish society, like all modern societies, is characterized by considerable complexity, an element of which is functional diversity.2 Thus, 2018 was an opportunity for celebration for many groups and institutions that constituted themselves within the framework of the Polish State a hundred years ago, including the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Policy, and the Central Statistical Office.
Each of these areas of social life is an aspect of consolidation over the 100 years of independence. Inscribing itself into the anniversary events, each one deserves special attention. Without making any claims to evaluate or compare the various pillars of social life, I would like to point out selected circumstances accompanying the birth of social policy in Poland. Their importance seems understandable when one looks at the past through the lens of great social processes.
The legislation of Poland, reborn after 123 years of the Partitions, was very modern. The granting voting rights to women, establishing an eight–hour working day, guaranteeing children free and universal education, and overseeing the working conditions juveniles, were all introduced in Poland much earlier than in many Western countries. Such regulations remained in stark contrast to the realities in which Poles had lived until then.3 Decades of exploitation of the inhabitants of Polish land and the lack of undertakings aimed at the development of the occupied territories led to a situation in which the splendor of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth remained alive only in the collective memory. Additionally, society suffered from the effects of the First World War, prolonged by the fight for the eastern borders with the Soviet Union. Poverty, hunger, illiteracy, and the fate of children orphaned by civilians and soldiers who died between 1914 and 1918 were very serious challenges.
The fathers of the reborn state, headed by Józef Piłsudski, attached great importance to social issues. Before starting activities leading to the formation of the Polish army, Marshal Piłsudski was for years involved in the work of the Polish Socialist Party. Among other things, its activities involved the publishing the Robotnik [Worker] magazine.4 Industrialization and its associated urbanization resulted in such profound changes in the social structure of many countries over the course of the 19th century that, under their influence the political order of Europe began to rupture in the early 20th century. Representatives of colonial powers, future new states becoming the political organisms of many European nations formed from out of the post–Versailles behemoths, and the Bolsheviks seeking to spread the revolutionary flame across the continent5 played a role in establishing the new borders. Piłsudski rebuilt Poland as a national community based on culture, common history, and heritage. At the same time, he was able to effectively resist the threat from the east. This was thanks to not only his military genius, but also the trust he enjoyed due to his sensitivity to the problems of the lower social strata.
Implementation of the idea of social solidarity in the Second Polish Republic encountered serious obstacles that were the result of the economic reality as well as the objectively difficult situation involving the uniting three extremely different post–Partition realities. This is all the more reason for the merits of the fathers of the first Polish solutions in the field of social policy deserve recognition. Social issues also played a significant role in later years as raised by the opposition, especially during the birth of the Solidarity Free Trade Union, in the times of the Polish People’s Republic. This sensitivity to social issues remains key even today, as exemplified by the “Family 500 Plus” program. Let us hope that, thanks to such experiences and traditions, attachment to the idea of social solidarity will also characterize future generations of Poles.
A detailed description of social policy changes in Poland over the last hundred years as well as an analysis of selected aspects of social policy can be found in the articles collected in this issue. An extensive 700–page monograph entitled Stulecie polskiej polityki społecznej 1918–2018 [One hundred years of Polish social policy 1918–2018], edited by E. Bojanowska, M. Grewiński, M. Rymsza, and G. Uścińska, and published by the National Center for Culture and the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (Warsaw, 2018) served as the basis for this choice. If you are interested in a more in–depth examination of the topics signaled in this issue, I encourage you to consult this informative publication, which provides additional comments and analyses of various aspects of social policy over the past 100 years.
Elżbieta Rafalska (Minister of Family, Labour and Social Policy)
PREFACE (s. 2)
From the time when Poland regained independence until now, Polish social policy has undergone significant transformations. These changes depended on the political and economic system of the state, the condition of the national economy, and on the objectives that public authorities set for social policy at that time.
On the eve of the regaining of independence by Poland, social policy had already become one of the most important spheres of activity of public authorities. The Regency Council, the supreme state body, appointed a Minister of Social Welfare and Labor Protection on January 3, 1918. The responsibilities of this Minister were clearly defined at the same. They included issues of public charity, state care for the victims of war, worker relations, oversight for worker emigration, factory inspection, and preparing labor protection and social security legislation.
The Minister took over the Temporary Labor Department of the Council of State and renamed it the Ministry of Social Welfare and Labor Protection. Over the following months and years, this Ministry underwent an organizational evolution. Among other things, it took over public health care matters that had previously belonged to the Ministry of the Internal Affairs. Apart from these and subsequent transformations, the basic tasks of the Ministry included the shaping of principles of social policy and their implementation.
One of the successes of the reborn state in the social sphere was the introduction of regulations on national social policy. They were introduced by the decrees of Józef Piłsudski: an eight–hour working day, protection of the population against the consequences of war usury, conditions for the eviction of the unemployed, creation of a state office for the return of prisoners of war, refugees, and workers as well as associations and a labor inspectorate subordinate to the Minister of Labor.
The outbreak of World War II interrupted the work of the Ministry of Social Welfare. It should be stressed, however, that in the interwar period it prepared and implemented many guidelines in the field of Polish social policy. This achievement made certain activities possible following the Second World War and subsequently in the free Poland after 1989.
Over the years 1987–1999, the Ministry of Labor and Civic Policy carried out tasks related to employment, benefits, and social security.
After the introduction of government administration departments, it was replaced by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy. This office was served by the minister in charge of the labor and social security departments. The office was later merged with the Ministry of Economy. After some time, the Ministry of Economy, Labor, and Social Policy was divided into the Ministry of Economy and Labor and the Ministry of Social Policy. It was only the previous government of the Law and Justice Party that restored the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy.
In 2015, the Law and Justice government changed the name of the Ministry. Pursuant to the Directive of the Council of Ministers of December 3, 2015, it was renamed the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Policy. This designation fully reflects the scope of tasks of the ministry. At the same time, it reaffirms the fact that shaping conditions for family development is a priority for the government.
The Law and Justice government places strong emphasis on family welfare, which is in performance of the provision found in Article 71(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, which states that: In its social and economic policy, the state takes into account the welfare of the family. Families facing difficult material and social situations, especially families with many children and single–parent families, have the right to special assistance from public authorities.
This provision corresponds to the principle behind the economic system as expressed in Article 20 of the Constitution that, subject to Polish conditions, is based on a social market economy — i.e. based on freedom of economic activity, private property and solidarity, dialogue and cooperation of social partners. Although this is a programmatic norm, the concept of social market economy appears to be blurred, despite many attempts to define it. The social market economy is considered a third way. On the one hand it is different from the liberal concept of a free market, while on the other from a planned economy characteristic of totalitarian regimes.
It is impossible not to agree with the opinion expressed on the following pages of this publication that it is difficult to predict the direction in which social policy will evolve over the next few or few dozen years. This will depend on many variables. There is no doubt, however, that it should constantly respond to the needs of a changing world.
Today, specific challenges encompass trends involving demography, globalization, automation of production processes, investment in human capital, and the knowledge–based economy. This necessitates the application of new, previously unknown instruments, both in social policy and in economic policy, which are, after all, a system of interconnected vessels. This monograph provides a reliable diagnosis as well as many interesting predictions and guidelines. Its editors and the authors of individual chapters present numerous, often very complex, issues in areas of interest to social policy with great expertise and in a very accessible way.
One Hundred Years of Polish Social Policy [in Polish] is an extremely valuable book in terms of its selection of comprehensive topics — the work of eminent experts in the field. It will inspire and contribute to further research on social policies. This publication is an expression of appreciation for those who have contributed to the development of social policy theory and practice.
The content of the book, to which I have the honor and pleasure of adding a few words of introduction, should be read by all those who have an impact on the shaping of social and economic policy in Poland. It will surely also prove interesting reading for scientists and social policy practitioners as well as students of the social sciences, including political science, social policy, the family sciences, and sociology.
I would like to express my appreciation to the editors and co–authors for producing this publication.
Julian Auleytner (Professor, Janusz Korczak Pedagogical University in Warsaw)
SOCIAL ISSUES AND THEIR SOLVING IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD (s. 3–8)
The article discusses the lineage of the Polish social policy between 1918 and 1939. The historical context of the Polish state’s social activity was presented. The text discusses the social rights of citizens in the first Constitution of 1921 and major scientific schools, which were engaged in social policy from the point of view of the socialist, liberal, and catholic values. The author presented the social state’s actions and discussed the precursors of social science.
Key words: history of social policy, social problems, children, poverty, social rights, forerunners of the social policy, Polish schools and scientific streams of social policy
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Ryszard Szarfenberg (Professor, University of Warsaw)
Michał Polakowski (PhD, Poznań University of Economics and Business)
SOCIAL POLICY DURING MATURE SOCIALISM PERIOD 1956–1980 (s. 8–14)
The aim of the article was to explore the possibility of explaining the development of socialist social policy with theories proposed as explanations for the western democratic and capitalist social policy development. Second aim was to analyse the development of social policy in Poland in the 1956–1980 period called in the Polish literature mature socialism. The arguments were grounded on the academic literature from socialist time and a later period. The second source was a review of the law acts related to labour and social entitlements. In both areas there was a gradual improvement after 1956 and 1970 labour protests. Strict subordination of the social policy to the economic policy was lessened. Coverage and generosity of labour and social entitlements were expanded. Explanation of these developments by western theories of the economic growth with ageing and bureaucratization or the domination of left labour parties and trade unions is fraught with difficulties and requires more research.
Key words: mature socialism, social policy, PRL, labour law, social protection, Poland
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Grażyna Firlit-Fesnak (Professor, University of Warsaw)
Mirosław Grewiński (Professor, Janusz Korczak Pedagogical University in Warsaw)
SOCIAL POLICY DURING POLAND’S MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION 2004–2017 (s. 15–20)
The publication is an analysis of the selected aspects of Polish social policy in 2004–2017, its endogenous and exogenous determinants, the results of political decisions on the state of development of key areas of social policy and their impact on access to social rights of Polish society. The subject of studies are such issues as the image of social development in Poland in the context of selected indicators, development of family and senior policy, the impact of Poland’s accession to the European Union on the direction and scope of employment policy changes, labour market, social security, and efficiency of public administration, a dependence between the Polish social policy and economic emigration of Poles.
Key words: economic emigration, EU influence on Polish social policy, family and senior policy, social policy, social security, social services, risk of poverty
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Grewiński M. (2009), “Wydatkowanie środków Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego w Polsce z perspektywy rozwoju społeczeństwa obywatelskiego i trzeciego sektora” [Disbursement of the European Social Fund in Poland from the perspective of the development of civil society and the third sector], Third Sector, issue 18.
Grewiński M. (2013), “Tezy wystąpienia nt. Polityka spójności UE na lata 2014–2020 – analiza krytyczna” [Theses of speeches on EU cohesion policy for 2014–2020: Critical analysis], 31st Conference of Social Policy Makers, Institute of Social Policy of the University of Warsaw, Polish Society for Social Policy, Spała, June 13, 2013.
Grewiński M. (2017), “Tezy wystąpienia ‘Dlaczego w polskich samorządach potrzebujemy Lokalnego Centrum Usług Społecznych?’” [Thesis of the “Why do we need a Local Social Services Center in Polish local government?” presentation] delivered during the “The Environment and Local Community as Spaces for Social Work” scientific conference, 27th Congress of the Polish Association of Social Work Schools, Casimir the Great University of Bydgoszcz, October 18–20, 2017.
Grewiński M. and Głąbicka K., Editors (2006), Droga do spójności – polityka regionalna i fundusze strukturalne UE [The road to cohesion: EU regional policy and structural funds], Ellipsis Publishing House, Warsaw.
“Informacja o rozmiarach i kierunkach czasowej emigracji z Polski w latach 2004–2016” [Information on the size and directions of temporary migration from Poland in the years 2004–2016] (2017), GUS, Warsaw.
Janowska A. (1989), Emigracja zarobkowa z Polski 1918–1939 [Economic migration from Poland 1918–1939], PWN Scientific Publishers, Warsaw.
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Krzywicki L. (1892), “Prawa przeciw wychodźstwu” [Laws against emigration], Gazeta Polska [Polish Gazette], issue 270.
Księżopolski M. (2015), “Kierunki ewolucji polityki społecznej w Polsce po przystąpieniu Polski do Unii Europejskiej” [Directions of evolution of Polish social policy after Poland’s accession to the EU], in C. Żołędowski, B. Rysz–Kowalczyk, and M. Duszczyk (Editors), Decade of Membership in the EU, Ellipsis Publishing House, Warsaw.
Kubiak M. (2016), Polityka społeczna wobec ludzi starych w Polsce na tle współczesnych przemian społeczno–gospodarczych [Social Policy and old people in Poland against a backdrop of contemporary social and economic transformations], University of Gdansk Publishing House, Gdansk.
“Praca nierejestrowana w Polsce w 2014 r.” [Non–registered work in Poland in 2014] (2015), GUS, Warsaw.
“Raport Migracje zarobkowe Polaków” [Report on the economic migrations of Poles] (2017), Millward Brown Institute.
“Społeczne skutki poakcesyjnej migracji ludności Polski” [Social consequences of post–accession migration of the Polish population] (2014), Report of the Committee for Migration Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.
Szatur–Jaworska B. (2017), “Polska polityka senioralna” [Polish senior citizen policy], in B. Szatur–Jaworska (Editor), Perspektywy rozwoju polskiej polityki społecznej [Perspectives for the development of Polish social policy], Elipsis Publishing House, Warsaw.
Trafiałek E. (2016), Innowacyjna polityka senioralna XXI wieku – między ageizmem, bezpieczeństwem socjalnym a active ageing [Innovative senior citizen policy in the 21st century: Between ageism, social security, and active ageing], Adam Marszałek Publishing House, Torun.
Uścińska G. (2011), “Nowe regulacje w zakresie koordynacji systemów zabezpieczenia społecznego” [New regulations in coordinating social security], in W. Anioł, M. Duszczyk, and P. Zawadzki (Editors), Europa socjalna – iluzja czy rzeczywistość? [Social Europe: Illusion or reality?], Institute of Social Policy, Warsaw.
Woźniak Z.(2016), Starość – bilans, zadanie, wyzwanie [Old age: The balance, task, and challenge], Scientific Publishing House of the Faculty of Social Sciences of the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.
“Zasięg ubóstwa ekonomicznego w Polsce w 2016 r.” [Range of economic poverty in Poland in 2016] (2017), GUS, June, https:://stat. gov.pl (November 29, 2017).
Józefa Hrynkiewicz (Professor, University of Warsaw)
Piotr Szukalski (Professor, University of Lodz)
POPULATION POLICY: BETWEEN SHAPING DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES AND REACTING TO THEM (s. 20–24)
The paper is aimed at presentation of how Polish population policy was affected by socio-political context in the last 100 years and how is implemented in the 21st century. The paper starts with presentation of what is the importance of demographic data for good state governance. Later sections are dealing with history of population censuses, changes in perception of the most important demographic issues over the studied period and a role played by the Governmental Council for Population Policy. The last section is focused on the most important elements of the population policy implemented in the last 20 years.
Key words: population policy, family policy, migration policy, senior citizen policy, 20th century, 21st century Poland
Boni M., Editor (2009), Polska 2030. Wyzwania rozwojowe [Developmental challenges], Chancellery of the Prime Minister, Warsaw.
Ciesielski S., Editor (1999), Przesiedlenia ludności polskiej z Kresów Wschodnich do Polski 1944–1947 [Resettlement of the Polish population from the Eastern Borderlands to Poland 1944–1947], Neriton Publishing House, Warsaw.
Duszczyk M. and Lesińska M. (2016), “Upolitycznienie procesów demograficznych — próba podejścia teoretycznego” [The politicization of demographic processes: An attempt at a theoretical approach], Problemy Polityki Społecznej, Studia i Dyskusje [Issues of social policy: Studiem and discussion], issue 3(34).
Gawryszewski A. (1997), Przestrzenna ruchliwość ludności Polski. Bibliografia (lata 1896–1990) [Spatial mobility of the Polish population: A bibliography (1896–1990)], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Wroclaw Academy of Sciences, page 5 and further, http://rcin.org.pl (January 26, 2018).
Hrynkiewicz J. (2010), Kwestia społeczna w pracach Ludwika Krzywickiego [Social issues in the works of Ludwik Krzywicki], University of Warsaw, Warsaw.
“Informacja o wielkości i kierunków emigracji z Polski w latach 2004–2016” [Information on the volume and directions of migration from Poland in the years 2004–2016] (2017), GUS, http://stat.gov.pl/obszary–tematyczne/ludnosc/migracje–zagraniczne–ludnosci/informacja–o–rozmiarach–i–kier unkach–emigracji–z–polski–w–latach–20042016,2,10.html (February 13, 2018).
“Krajowa Polityka Miejska 2023” [National Urban Policy 2023] (2015), Ministra of Development, Warsaw, https://www.mr.gov.pl/media/10252/Krajowa_Polityka_Miejska_20–10–2015.pdf (February 13, 2018).
Kruszyński K. (2015), “Reprezentanci władz lokalnych wobec bezrobocia i biedy oraz sposobów ich przezwyciężania (na przykładzie gmin województwa łódzkiego) — raport z badań” [Representatives of local authorities on unemployment and poverty and ways of overcoming them (using the boroughs of the Łódź Voivodeship as an example): Research report], Problemy Polityki Społecznej. Studia i Dyskusje [Problems of Social Policy: Studies and discussion], issue 3 (30).
Latuch M. (1993), “Migracje zewnętrzne ludności” [External migration of the population], in Rozwój demografii polskiej 1918–1993 [Development of Polish demography 1918–1993], scientific conference materials], Polish Demographic Society, GUS, Warsaw.
Leszczyki S., Editor (1970), Narodowy Atlas Polski [National Atlas of Poland], Ossolinski National Publishing House, Wroclaw.
Łodziński S. (2010), “Obieżysasi, ‘wyrwidęby’ i ‘pańskie dziady’: Ludwik Krzywicki jako badacz migracji” [Vagabonds, “drifters,” and “the lord’s beggars”: Ludwik Krzywicki as a migration scholar], in J. Hrynkiewicz (Editor), Wizjoner i realista. Szkice o Ludwiku Krzywickim [A visionary and a realist: Sketches about Ludwik Krzywicki], University of Warsaw Publishing House, Warsaw.
Niemyska M. (1938), Wychodźcy po powrocie do kraju. Reemigranci w woj. białostockim w świetle ankiety w 1934 roku [Emigrants after returning home: Remigrants in the Białystok Voivodeship in light of a 1934 survey], Institute of Social Economy, Warsaw.
“Plan przeciwdziałania depopulacji w województwie łódzkim 2020” [Depopulation prevention plan for Łódź Province 2020] (2015), Marshal’s Office of the Łódź Voivodeship, Łódź.
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Rakowski J. (1939), “Polityka inwestycyjna i planowanie inwestycji” [Investment policy and investment planning], Polska Gospodarcza [Economics Poland] weekly, Warsaw.
Rauziński R. and Szczygielski K. (2014), “Związki polityki ludnościowej z polityką społeczną na przykładzie koncepcji Specjalnej Strefy Demograficznej w województwie opolskim [Links between population Policy and social policy using the concept of a Special Demographic Zone in the Opolskie Voivodeship as an example], Problemy Polityki Społecznej. Studia i Dyskusje [Problems of Social Policy: Studies and discussion], issue 27(4).
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Stpiczyński T. (1993), “Spisy powszechne, statystyka ruchu naturalnego i migracja ludności w badaniach Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego” [Censuses, natural movement statistics, and population migration in Central Statistical Office surveys], in Rozwój demografii polskiej 1918–1993 [Development of Polish demography 1918–1993], research conference materials, PTD–GUS, Warsaw.
“Strategia na rzecz Odpowiedzialnego Rozwoju” [Strategy for responsible development] (2017), Ministry of Development, Warsaw.
Szczepaniak–Sienniak J. (2015), Polityka rodzinna państwa we współczesnej Polsce [Family policy of the state in contemporary Poland], Społeczeństwo i Ekonomia [Society and Economy], issue 2(4).
Szulc S. (1938), “Polityka ludnościowa” [Population policy], in W. Grabski and E. J. Reyman (Editors), Encyklopedia Nauk Politycznych [Encyklopedia of political science], “Biblioteka Polska” [Polish Library] Social Institute and Publishing House, vol. III, Warsaw.
Thomas W. I. and Znaniecki F. (1976), Chłop polski w Europie i Ameryce [The Polish peasant in Europe and America], volumes 1–5, Warsaw.
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Wiesław Koczur (Professor, University of Economics in Katowice)
Tadeusz Szumlicz (Professor, Warsaw School of Economics)
SOCIAL INSURANCE: CONFRONTATION OF SOLIDARITY AND INDIVIDUALISM (s. 25–31)
The aim of this paper is to present the directions of changes in the Polish social insurance system in the years 1919–2017. The article presents the origin and development of Polish social insurance in the interwar period, the fate of that insurance during German occupation (1939–1945), and the development of solutions in the field of post-World War II insurance, divided into period of Polish People’s Republic and time after socio-economic and political transformation from 1989. In the paper, particular attention was paid to the issues of the subjective scope of the social insurance system, the scope of insurance coverage implemented, as well as organizational and financial aspects of its functioning.
Key words: social security system, social insurance system, old-age pension insurance, social security law
“Bezpieczeństwo dzięki różnorodności. Reforma systemu emerytalno–rentowego w Polsce” [Security through diversity: Reform of the retirement pension and benefit system in Poland] (1997), Office of the Government Plenipotentiary for Social Security Reform, Warsaw, February, second revised version. Supplemented versions of this draft were presented in May and June of 1997.
Jędrasik–Jankowska I. (2003), Ubezpieczenie społeczne, t. 1 – Część ogólna [Social security, vol. 1, General section], LexisNexis, Warsaw.
Koczur W. (2010), Restytucja zdolności do pracy w polskim powszechnym systemie ubezpieczeń społecznych [Restitution of the ability to work in the Polish universal social security system], Katowice University of the Economics Publishing House, Katowice.
Muszalski W. (2004), Ubezpieczenie społeczne [Social insurance], PWN Scientific Publishers, Warsaw.
Szumlicz T. (2005), Ubezpieczenie społeczne. Teoria dla praktyki [Social insurance: Theory for practice], Branta, Bydgoszcz–Warsaw.
Zieliński T. (1994), Ubezpieczenia społeczne pracowników [Employee social insurance], PWN Scientific Publishers, Warsaw.
Elżbieta Bojanowska (PhD, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw)
Jerzy Krzyszkowski (Professor, University of Humanities and Life Science in Czestochowa)
SOCIAL ASSISTANCE: FROM CARE TO SOCIAL SERVICES (s. 31–36)
The article is about the genesis and evolution of social services in Poland. The authors presented the Polish way of building social services in Poland until 1939, as well as the way of functioning of social services in the People’s Republic of Poland and during the years 1990–2015. The last chapter of the article is focused on the reforms of social services in Poland after 2015. In the conclusion of the article, the authors state that history of social services in Poland shows the never ending efforts of meeting new social needs, as well as growing complexity and internal diversity of organizational structures of social services that require integration and coordination.
Key words: social service, public assistance, institution, organizational structures
“Beneficjenci środowiskowej pomocy społecznej w 2016 r.” [Beneficiaries of community social assistance in 2016] (2017), GUS, Cracow.
Rymsza M. (2017), “Służby społeczne i usługi społeczne: programowanie polityk publicznych [Social services and social services: The programming of public policy], presented at the “Social Services in Public Policy in Poland” Conference, Warsaw, November 30, 2017.
Szarfenberg R. (2015), “Pomoc społeczna 1990–2014. Sukcesy, porażki, wyzwania” [Social assistance 1990–2014: Successes, failures, and challenges], presented during the “Twenty–Five Years of Social Assistance: Experiences and Challenges” MOPR Conference, Gdańsk, May 27, 2015.
Zenon Wiśniewski (Professor, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń)
Łukasz Arendt (Professor, Institute of Labour and Social Studies)
LABOR MARKET POLICY: FROM INCOME PROTECTION TO ACTIVE NEASURES (s. 36–41)
The study presents an analysis of the evolution and effects of labour market policy in the interwar period and after the economic transition in Poland. Labour market policy was created from scratch in 1918–1939. A similar situation took place after 1989, as labour market policy was practically non-existent during the period of centrallyplanned economy. There has been a perceptible change in the policy priorities in recent years – it has shifted from income-protection measures to active instruments, which should be assessed positively. Nevertheless, it seems that the capacity of labour market policy in Poland has not been fully utilized, hence the postulate of further reforms in order to increase the effectiveness of its impact was presented.
Key words: active labour market policy, net and gross efficiency, propensity score matching, unemployment
Anioł W. (2014), “Państwo pracy w Skandynawii – między ciągłością a zmianą” [The working state in Scandinavia: Between continuity and change], Polityka Społeczna [Social Policy], issue 4.
Caliendo M., Hujer R., and Thomsen S. (2005), “The Employment Effect of Job Creation Schemes in Germany: A Microeconometric Evaluation,” IZA Discussion Paper, No. 1512.
Card D., Kluve J., and Weber A. (2010), “Active Labor Market Policy Evaluations: A Meta–Analysis,” NBER Working Paper, No. 1617.
Dingeldey I. (2011), Der aktivierende Wohlfahrtsstaat: Governance der Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Dänemark, Großbritannien und Deutschland (Schriften des Zentrums für Sozialpolitik), Campus Verlag, Bremen.
Dolecka M. (2012), “Przyczyny i charakter bezrobocia w Lublinie w okresie międzywojennym” [The causes and nature of unemployment in Lublin in the interwar period], Annales Universitatis Marie Curie–Sklodowska, issue 1.
Dolecka M. and Raczkiewicz D. (2014), “Bezrobocie w Polsce w okresie międzywojennym w kontekście jakości danych w spisach ludności” [Unemployment in Poland in the interwar period in the context of data quality in population censuses], Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie–Sklodowska, issue 2.
Hrynkiewicz J. (1999), Fundusz pracy [Labor Fund], Sejm Chancery, Office of Studies and Expertise, Information no. 303.
Jędruszczak H. (1964), “Rynek pracy w Polsce międzywojennej” [The labor market in interwar Poland], in Najnowsze Dzieje Polski. Materiały i Studia z Okresu 1914–1939 [Recent History of Poland: Materials and Studies from the 1914–1939 Period], vol. VII.
Mlonek K. (1999), Bezrobocie w Polsce w XX wieku w świetle badań [Unemployment in Poland in the 20th century in the light of research], National Labor Office, Warsaw.
MRPiPS (2017), Efektywność podstawowych form aktywizacji zawodowej realizowanych w ramach programów na rzecz promocji zatrudnienia, łagodzenia skutków bezrobocia i aktywizacji zawodowej w 2016 r. [Effectiveness of basic forms of economic activation implemented within programs for employment promotion, mitigating the effects of unemployment and economic activation in 2016], Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Policy, Warsaw.
Nagel K. and Smandek I. M. (2010), Polityka rynku pracy i źródła jej finansowania [Labor market policy and sources of financing], Katowice University of Economics Publishing House, Katowice.
Szylko–Skoczny M. (2017), “Polityka rynku pracy w Polsce” [Labor market policy in Poland], in B. Szatur-Jaworska (Editor), Perspektywy rozwoju polskiej polityki społecznej – doświadczenia i wyzwania [Perspectives for the development of Polish social policy: Experiences and challenges], Ellipsis Publishing House, Warsaw.
Szylko–Skoczny M. (2004), Polityka społeczna wobec bezrobocia w Trzeciej Rzeczypospolitej [Social policy towards unemployment in the Third Polish Republic], ASPRA–JR Publishing House, Warsaw.
Wiśniewski Z. (1994), Polityka zatrudnienia i rynku pracy w Republice Federalnej Niemiec [Employment and labor market policy in the Federal Republic of Germany], Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń.
Wiśniewski Z. and Zawadzki K., Editors (2011), Efektywność polityki rynku pracy w Polsce [Effectiveness of labor market policy in Poland], UMK–WUP, Toruń.
Gertruda Uścińska (Professor, University of Warsaw)
Maciej Żukowski (Professor, Poznań University of Economics and Business)
THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION FOR POLISH SOCIAL POLICY (s. 41–46)
The article discusses the impact of European integration on social policy in Poland. Though social policy remains mainly the competence of the EU member states, EU impact on social policy has been clear, already since Poland’s preparation to the membership, thus for more than 20 years. Free movement of workers was the most difficult issue during the accession negotiations, due to fears of the old member states. During the integration, Polish law, especially in the area of labour law, was adjusted to the EU law. Poland entered the EU system of social security coordination An indirect impact of integration has been substantial, especially through contributing to catching up in the level of development.
Key words: European Union, Polish social policy, European integration, consequences, EU law, social security coordination
Anioł W. (2003), Polityka socjalna Unii Europejskiej [Social policy of the European Union], Sejm Publishing House, Warsaw.
Anioł W. (2017), “Od unii gospodarczej do unii socjalnej w strefie euro? Znaczenie polityki społecznej w integracji europejskiej” [From economic union to social union in the euro area? The importance of social policy in European integration], in B. Szatur–Jaworska (Editor), Perspektywy rozwoju polskiej polityki społecznej — doświadczenia i wyzwania [Perspectives for the development of Polish social policy: Experiences and challenges], Institute of Social Policy of the University of Warsaw, Warsaw.
Bińczycka–Majewska T. (2004), “Podstawowe zagadnienia koordynacji systemów zabezpieczenia społecznego w ramach Unii Europejskiej” [Basic issues relating to the coordination of social security systems within the European Union], in U. Jackowiak and A. Malaka (Editors), Problemy ubezpieczeń społecznych w 70–lecie istnienia Zakładu Ubezpieczeń Społecznych [Issues of social insurance in the 70th anniversary of the Social Insurance Institution (ZUS)], Polish Social Insurance Association, Wrocław.
Duszczyk M. (2002), Swobodny przepływ pracowników w negocjacjach o członkostwo Polski w Unii Europejskiej [Free movement of workers in negotiations on Poland’s membership in the European Union], Institute of Social Policy of the University of Warsaw, Warsaw.
Golinowska S., Hengstenberg P., and Żukowski M., Editors (2009), Diversity and Commonality in European Social Policies: The Forging of a European Social Model, Scholar Scientific Publishers, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Warsaw.
Kuś A., Editor (2010), Prawo Unii Europejskiej z uwzględnieniem traktatu z Lizbony [European Union law, taking into account the Treaty of Lisbon], Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin.
Małuszyńska E. and Gruchman B., Editors (2010), Kompendium wiedzy o Unii Europejskiej [A compendium of knowledge about the European Union], PWN Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, pp. 281–301.
Government Plenipotentiary for Negotiations for Membership of the Republic of Poland in the European Union, “Stanowiska Polski w ramach negocjacji o członkostwo Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w Unii Europejskiej” [Positions of Poland in the Negotiations for Membership of the Republic of Poland in the European Union], Chancellery of the Prime Minister, Warsaw, 2010.
Roberts S. (2017), “The UK and Social Security Coordination after Brexit: Reinventing the Wheel or Mad Hatter’s Tea Party?” Social Security: Theory, Law, Practice,” issue 6, pp. 13–27.
Świątkowski A. (2000), Europejskie prawo socjalne [European social law], vol. 3, ABC Publishing House, Warsaw.
Uścińska G. (2005a), Europejskie standardy zabezpieczenia społecznego a współczesne rozwiązania polskie [European social security standards and contemporary Polish solutions], Institute of Labour and Social Studies, Warsaw.
Uścińska G. (2005b), Świadczenia z zabezpieczenia społecznego w regulacjach międzynarodowych i polskich. Studium porównawcze [Social security benefits in international and Polish regulations: Comparative study], Institute of Labour and Social Studies, Warsaw.
Uścińska G. (2010), “Koordynacja systemów zabezpieczenia społecznego jako instrument rozwoju swobody przepływu osób. Nowe regulacje unijne” [Coordination of social security systems as an instrument to develop the free movement of persons: New EU regulations], Polityka Społeczna [Social Policy], issue 11–12, pp. 1–5.
Uścińska G. (2013), Zabezpieczenie społeczne osób korzystających z prawa do przemieszczania się w Unii Europejskiej [Social security for persons enjoying the right of movement within the European Union], Wolters Kluwer, Warsaw.
Uścińska G. (2016), “Brexit — konsekwencje prawne i społeczne dla rynku pracy i zabezpieczenia społecznego” [Brexit: Legal and social consequences for the labor market and social security], Polityka Społeczna [Social Policy], issue 10, pp. 1–5.
Uścińska G. and Kazenas B. (2002), Koordynacja polskiego systemu zabezpieczenia społecznego z regulacjami unijnymi. Ekspertyzy prawne [Coordination of the Polish social security system with EU regulations: Legal expert studies], Ministry of Family, Labour, and Social Policy, Warsaw.
Uścińska G., Kazenas B., Editor (2005), Orzeczenia Europejskiego Trybunału Sprawiedliwości z zakresu zabezpieczenia społecznego [Rulings of the European Court of Justice in the field of social security], broad and abbreviated version, Ministry of Labour, and Social Policy, Warsaw.
Vandenbroucke F. and Vanhercke B. (2014), A European Social Union: 10 Tough Nuts to Crack, Background Report for the Friends of Europe High–Level Group on “Social Union”, Friends of Europe, Brussels.
Żukowski M. (2010), “Unijna strategia integracji społecznej” [The EU Social Inclusion Strategy], Polityka Społeczna [Social Policy], issue 9, pp. 2–7.
Żukowski M. (2015), “Polityka społeczna” [Social policy], in E. Małuszyńska and G. Mazur (Editors), Unia Europejska 2014+ [European Union 2014+], Difin, Warsaw.
Mirosław Księżopolski (Professor, University of Warsaw)
Piotr Michoń (Professor, Poznań University of Economics and Business)
SCENARIOS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLISH SOCIAL POLICY OVER THE NEXT DECADES (s. 46–49)
The purpose of the paper is to present scenarios for the development of Polish social policy over the next decades. We are considering three such scenarios. The first one foresees the continuation of the concentration of social policy on its adaptation to current challenges specific to Poland. The second scenario assumes a gradual change of priorities for external challenges related to globalization processes, changes in the structure of developed countries’ economies, as well as technological progress and the construction of a knowledge-based economy. The final scenario is an attempt to answer the question of what the shape of the welfare state will be depending on different ways of responding to the challenges that will be ahead of it and on the goals that can be achieved at that time. The scenarios presented by us are not of a prognostic nature, they are rather subjective reflections on probable development trends in the area of social policy.
Key words: Poland, the future of social policy, transformation of welfare state, transformation
Inglot T. (2010), Welfare States w Europie Środkowo–Wschodniej w latach 1919–2004 [Welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe from 1919 to 2004], Ellipsis and the TPW University of Pedagogy Publishing House, Warsaw.
Księżopolski M. (2011), “Dokąd zmierza polityka społeczna” [Where is social policy headed], Problemy Polityki Społecznej [Problems of Social Policy], issue 16.
Pierson P. (1994), Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher and the Politics of Retrenchment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
About the authors
Łukasz Arendt – Ph.D., Habil. in economic sciences, director of the Institute of Labor and Social Studies, Adjunct Professor with the Department of Economic Policy at the University of Lodz. Participated in many national and international research projects commissioned by the Directorate–General for Education and Culture, the European Parliament, and CEDEFOP. Research interests include labor market issues and the impact of information and telecommunication technologies on the economy, employment projections, development of an information society, digital exclusion, and changes in the education system induced by the needs of the labor market.
Julian Auleytner – Professor Ordinarius, Ph.D., Habil. in economic sciences, social policy scientist, university lecturer, author of over 300 publications, the Polityka społeczna w Polsce i w świecie [Social policy in Poland and in the world] textbook (2012), and the Finansowanie polityki społecznej [Financing social policy] study (2017). Long–time President of the Polish Society for Social Policy, member of several scientific committees of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Co–founder and long–time Rector of Janusz Korczak Pedagogical University in Warsaw.
Elżbieta Bojanowska – Ph.D. in humanities, sociologist, social policy scientist, Adjunct Professor at the Institute of Sociology of the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, Undersecretary of State of the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Policy with responsibility for social welfare and senior citizen policy. Member of the Polish Sociological Society, the Government Population Council, the Steering Committee of the National Health Program, the Reduction of Energy Deficiency in Poland Group, and the National Revitalization Committee. Main research areas include population ageing and related socio–economic consequences, intergenerational relations, and issues related to poverty and social exclusion.
Grażyna Firlit-Fesnak – Professor Ordinarius, Ph.D., Habil. in humanities in the field of the political sciences, political scientist, Head of the Department of Migration and Ethnic Relations at the Institute of Social Policy, Faculty of Political Sciences and International Studies, University of Warsaw. Deputy Director for Research and Cooperation with Foreign Countries in 1995–2007, and Director of the Institute of Social Policy in 2007–2008. Areas of scientific work include family issues and policies, gender inequalities, and migration and migration policies. Member of the Migration Research Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences since 2011.
Mirosław Grewiński – Ph.D., Habil. in social sciences, Professor Extraordinarius and Deputy Rector of Janusz Korczak Pedagogical University in Warsaw. President of the Management Board of the Polish Society for Social Policy and President of the Management Board of the Society for Universal Knowledge. Member of the Central Examination Commission for Specialisation in the Profession of Social Worker at the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Policy as well as other national bodies. Member of the European Social Network and European Commission expert on social policy. Author of over 300 scientific publications. Research interests include transformations of the welfare state, multi–sectorial social policy, social services, social innovation, and the social economy.
Józefa Hrynkiewicz – Professor Ordinarius, Ph.D., Habil. in humanities, sociologist, research worker at the Institute of Applied Social Sciences, University of Warsaw. Previously Rector of the University of Economics and Humanities in Skierniewice (1997–2006), Director of the National School of Public Administration (2006–2008) as well as advisor on social policy to Prime Minister Jan Olszewski. Deputy Chairwoman of the Economic and Social Council of the Government Center for Strategic Studies and Director of the Social Policy Program at the Institute of Public Affairs. Sat on the Social Council of the Polish Episcopate. Member of the National Development Council under President Lech Kaczyński. Member of the Sejm [Parliament] since 2011.
Wiesław Koczur – Ph.D., Habil. in economic sciences, Professor Extraordinarius with the University of Economics in Katowice, Head of the Department of Social Policy at the Faculty of Economics of the University. Member of the Management Board of the Polish Society for Social Policy. Specializes in social security issues, with particular emphasis on social insurance. Author of over 140 scientific publications. Scientific editor of twelve collective works. Participant of many national and international research projects.
Jerzy Krzyszkowski – Ph.D., Habil. in the sociology of social policy, Professor with the Department of Labor and Social Policy at the Faculty of Economics and Sociology of the University of Lodz and with the Institute of Labor and Social Studies in Warsaw. Author of over 100 scientific articles, author and co–author and editor of twenty–two books. Member of the Management Board of the Polish Society for Social Policy, the Senior Citizen Policy Council at the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Policy, and the Central Examination Commission for Specialisation in the Occupation of Social Worker at the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Policy. Scientific interests include social policy, social welfare, gerontology, and social work.
Mirosław Księżopolski – Professor Ordinarius, Ph.D., Habil. in humanities, research worker and Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Institute of Social Policy of the University of Warsaw. Interests include comparative social policy, social security, and the shaping and specificity of social policy in Poland in the period of political transformation. In recent years focused mainly on the characteristics of social policy models functioning in developed countries (including Poland), identification of the most important challenges and dilemmas facing such policy today, and analysis of strategies for solving major social issues.
Piotr Michoń – Ph.D., Habil. in economic sciences, staff member of the Department of Labor and Social Policy at the Poznań University of Economics and Business. Specializes in family policy, the labor market, and individual well–being, including division of labor in households, and combining work and family responsibilities. Member of the Board of the European Network for Social Policy Analysis (ESPAnet) and the Polish Society for Social Policy. Led Polish teams in numerous international projects. Author of many scientific publications, including the monograph Ekonomia szczęścia [The economics of happiness]. Runs the ekonomiaszczescia.pl science blog.
Michał Polakowski – Ph.D. in humanities, staff member of the Department of Labor and Social Policy at the Poznań University of Economics and Business implementing the “Crises and Reforms of Pension Systems in Europe: Comparative Analysis” project financed by the National Science Center. Research interests include issues involving the political economy of the welfare state and the functioning of pension systems, labor market, and migration.
Ryszard Szarfenberg – Ph.D., Habil. in humanities, Head of the Social Assistance and Integration Laboratory at the Institute of Social Policy of the University of Warsaw. Chairman of the Executive Board of the Polish Committee of the European Anti–Poverty Network, expert collaborating with the Polish Ombudsman. Previously a member of the Management Board of the Polish Society for Social Policy (2008–2016), expert with the European Minimum Income Network (2014, 2017). Member of the Editorial Board of the quarterly Problemy Polityki Społecznej. Studia i Dyskusje [Social Policy Issues: Studies and Discussions]. Specializes in social policy and public policy issues. Author of many publications, including the monograph Krytyka i afirmacja polityki społecznej [A critique and affirmation of social policy] (2008), which was awarded by the Committee on Labor Sciences and Social Policy of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Piotr Szukalski – Ph.D., Habil. in economic sciences, Professor with the Department of Applied Sociology and Social Work of the University of Lodz. Specializes in issues on the borders of demography, social gerontology, and social policy. Research focuses on the course of the ageing process of the Polish population, taking into account its dual nature and its consequences, the transformation of the Polish family model, and intergenerational relations at the micro and macro levels. Member of the Forecasts and Demographic Sciences Committees of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Member of the National Development Council and the Government Population Council.
Tadeusz Szumlicz – Professor of economic sciences. Serving Head of the Department of Social Insurance and Postgraduate Insurance Studies at the Warsaw School of Economics. Author of more than 350 publications on social policy, with particular emphasis on social security, including retirement and health security and insurance, the theoretical aspects of the insurance method, insurance policy, and household insurance coverage. President of the Institute for Social Risk Management Foundation. Editor–in–Chief of Wiadomości Ubezpieczeniowych [Insurance News]. Member of the Program Council of the Ubezpieczenia Społeczne. Teoria i praktyka [Social Insurance: Theory and practice] periodical.
Gertruda Uścińska – Professor, Ph.D., Habil. in humanities, researcher with the Institute of Social Policy of the University of Warsaw and the Department of Labor Law and Social Security of the Institute of Labor and Social Studies. President of the Social Insurance Institution (ZUS). Expert in the field of the right to free movement of workers and coordination of social security systems in the European Union. Author of many scientific publications. Editor–in–Chief of the Zabezpieczenie Społeczne. Teoria, Prawo, Praktyka [Social Security: Theory, Law, Practice] periodical. Member of the Committee on Labor and Social Policy of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Zenon Wiśniewski – Professor Ordinarius, Ph.D., Habil. in economic sciences, Head of the Department of Labor Resource Management at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Interests include employment and labor market issues, in particular with the labor market policy of the European Union countries. Published 250 scientific papers, including 50 studies published in renowned foreign journals and collective publications. Received many prestigious foreign research grants. Participates in international research and undertakes research projects financed by European funds.
Maciej Żukowski – Professor, Ph.D., Habil. in economic sciences, Rector of the Poznań University of Economics and Business, Professor with the Department of Labor and Social Policy of Poznań University of Economics and Business. Expert in the field of social policy, including in particular retirement pension security, social policy in the European Union, and labor markets. Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at the University of Bremen. Member of the Committee on Labor and Social Policy of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Chairman of the Board of the Polish Social Insurance Association.