Od redakcji 6/2018
Zarządzanie talentami w różnych kontekstach
Problematyka talentów i zarządzania talentami nie od dzisiaj stanowi przedmiot zainteresowania wśród badaczy i praktyków zarządzania. Niemniej jednak począwszy od przełomu XX i XXI wieku można zaobserwować wyraźny wzrost tego zainteresowania i zarysowującą się zmianę w podejściu do tematu. W literaturze przedmiotu podkreśla się, że współczesne zainteresowanie zarządzaniem talentami zostało zapoczątkowane raportem grupy konsultantów firmy McKinsey, zatytułowanym War for Talent1, i wzmocnione wypowiedziami znanych przedstawicieli biznesu, menedżerów najwyższego szczebla zarządzania (Collings i wsp., 2018). Trwa ono nieprzerwanie od ponad dwu dekad, o czym świadczą liczne publikacje zawarte w literaturze zagranicznej (Collings i wsp., 2017; Sparrow i wsp., 2014) i krajowej (Borkowska, 2005; Pocztowski, 2008, 2016; Ingram, 2011; Kopeć, 2012; Tabor, 2013). Wynika z rosnącego znaczenia kapitału ludzkiego jako czynnika konkurencyjności we współczesnej gospodarce oraz ze zmian zachodzących w otoczeniu organizacji, rozwoju nowoczesnych technologii i nowych przemysłów, w których wiedza staje się strategicznym czynnikiem rozwoju i konkurencyjności przedsiębiorstw, a postępujące umiędzynarodowienie ułatwia przemieszczanie się pracowników między rynkami pracy. Przyczynia się do wzrostu ryzyk związanych z pozyskaniem i retencją pracowników, szczególnie w tych przedsiębiorstwach, które marnotrawią potencjał ludzki i stosują praktyki zarządzania, typowe dla okresu ery industrialnej, nieakceptowane przez przedstawicieli generacji Y, stanowiącej coraz większą część osób aktywnych zawodowo. Jednocześnie upowszechnia się przekonanie, że o zdolności przedsiębiorstw do konkurowania w takich warunkach w coraz większym stopniu decyduje dostępność i jakość kapitału ludzkiego. (więcej…)
From the Editor 6/2018
Talent management in different contexts The subject of talents and talent management has been evoking interest among both researchers and practitioners of management for quite a long time. At the turn of the twentieth and twenty–first century this interest increased significantly and a change in approach to talent management has been observed ever since. More and more emphasis is put on the strategic significance of talents and their considerable role in organizational performance is now appreciated. As indicated in the literature, this interest was initiated by a report issued by a group of McKinsey consultants entitled “War for Talent,”1 subsequently strengthened by statements made by famous business people and senior executive managers (Collings, McDonnell, and McMackin, 2018). The debate went on for over two decades and is reflected in numerous publications in both foreign literature (Collings, Mellahi, and Cascio, editors, 2017; Sparrow, Scullion, and Tarique, editors, 2014) and Polish publications (Borkowska, eidtor, 2005; Pocztowski, editor, 2008, 2016; Ingram, editor, 2011; Kopeć, 2012; Tabor, 2013) as well as hundreds or even thousands of academic articles and conference presentations.
The increase in the interest on talent management is the result of the growing significance of human capital in determining competitiveness in the modern economy as well as with respect to changes in organizational environments, the development of new technologies, globalization, and the emergence of new industrial sectors where knowledge has become a determinant of strategic development and competitiveness in organizations. At the same time, progressing internationalization facilitates employee movements among labor markets. It also adds to the growing risk connected with employee acquisition and retention, particularly in organizations that waste human potential and apply management practices characteristic of the period of the industrial era that are unacceptable today in the era of Generation Y, which constitutes a growing share of professionally active people. At the same time, it is largely believed that organizational ability to compete under such conditions is, to a great extent, determined by the availability and quality of human capital. The review of current research into the concept of talent suggests that two main research trends prevail: The first one concerns managing highly efficient employees of high potential, while the other one focuses on identifying the strategic position of talents and talent management systems. More and more attention is drawn to the issue of global talent management, which is adapting the above trends globally (McDonnell et al., 2017). There are several important research subjects in this area such as talent management in the context of performance management, contingent employment, and implementing lean management rules (Collings, McDonnell, and McMackin, 2018). There is a growing interest in talent management in research—practical talent development, as well as broadly–defined talent management. In order to create a reliable and well–founded theory and propose the right practical solutions, certain important issues must be considered. The first one concerns the notion of talent, mainly what or who may be perceived as talent. The second one is the approach to talent management and the third one refers to the context in which research processes take place and practical solutions are implemented. Many research studies address the theoretical concepts of talent management and its operationalization for practical application in each of these three areas. The studies also reflect how understanding the core of talent and the approach to talent management has been changing. Although there is no single unanimous definition of talent and talent management, certain theoretical frames may be indicated within which the phenomenon is recognized in the literature. They are determined by the selected features of individuals that make them stand out from the rest due to some above–average abilities in a certain domain as well as in the organizational roles they perform. Both the features and roles may be approached in an exclusive or inclusive way (Iles, Chuai, and Preece, 2010). Management, in turn, often defines talent depending on the specific nature of the organization and the way in which its managers comprehend talent. This fact makes studies into the matter, comparing results, and formulating conclusions decidedly challenging. Many issues concerning talent management mentioned above have been addressed in the papers included in this edition of Human Resource Management [Zarządzanie Zasobami Ludzkimi]. The first two articles are devoted to global talent management. The one by Joanna Purgał–Popiela discusses the current state of research on the subject. Based on a literature review and the results of empirical studies, she undertakes to define the core of global talent management and development trends in this emerging sub–discipline of talent management. In the second article, Sylwia Przytuła presents the issue of global talent management in the context of expatriation, showing some interdependencies between particular stages of the expatriation process and certain phases of the talent management process. The reflections and conclusions refer to the specific nature of international organizations. Talent management goes along with the development of human capital in its individual, organizational, as well as professional career dimension. This trend is described in the article by Alicja Miś. The author attempts to present relations between the way talent is perceived in the literature, management practice, as well as solutions used in managing the careers of talented employees. In the next article, Grzegorz Łukasiewicz analyzes the relation between perceiving talent and formulating strategic programs concerning talents. He points to the complexity of the process’ determinants and factors influencing the approach to the talent management strategy, such as managers’ values and beliefs, human recource management policy, human capital, and the state of the labor market. Many tools used in human resource management may be adapted to the specifics of talented employees and successfully applied in the process of talent management. Coaching is one such instrument. Its potential in retaining talents is discussed by Csilla Czeglédi and Klár Veresné Valentinyi on the basis of empirical studies conducted in small and medium enterprises in Hungary. The issue of talent management in small and medium enterprises is also taken up by Urban Pauli, who analyses talent management practices in the context of SMEs in Poland. The results of empirical research point to a diversified picture of talent management in small and medium enterprises with respect to approach, process organization, and tools. Talent management in sport seems quite obvious in the context of striving for sporting triumphs. Marcin Karwiński discusses this issue in his article. He tries to determine the potential for talent management in the context of soccer clubs in the Polish major league. He shows that certain elements of a professional approach to talent management do appear in sports clubs, but they are intermixed with some organizational and competency–based shortcomings. There are two studies in the research communiqués section. The first one, written by Beata Buchelt, addresses talent management in hospitals. Starting from the strategic significance of talented employees in such medical organizations, the author analyses talent management practices used in reference to medical personnel. She identifies and evaluates the practices on the basis of questionnaire studies conducted on a group of heads of wards and head nurses from selected hospitals. In the second article, Bartosz Szota presents the outcome of research into talent management in the civil service. The findings suggest that ministries do implement certain practices to address talented employees, but comprehensive solutions are rather rare. The articles included in this issue are complemented by a case study looking at talents in Neuca, a listed company. Ewelina Kałka presents some experiences connected with implementing a talent management program in that organization, i.a. the outcome of such activity from the perspective of organizational goals and the job satisfaction of employees who participated in the program. The author also predicts some trends for the future development of the program. All the articles from this edition of the journal fit in with development tendencies relating to talent as mentioned at the beginning of this introduction perfectly. They prove the global and, at the same time, local dimension of talent management. They emphasize its strategic aspects and interrelations with other areas of human resource management as well as broadly–defined management. The articles prove the significance of context in investigating talent management and implementing practical solutions. Hopefully, they will evoke interest among both researchers and practitioners as well as inspire further studies.
Prof. Aleksy Pocztowski, Ph.D., Habil. ORCID: 0000-0001-7966-7251 Issue Scientific Editor_______________ 1 This is a reference to the following publication: Chambers E. G., Fouldon M. F., Handfield–Jones H., Hankon S., and Michaels III E. (1998), “The War for Talent,” The McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3.