Od redakcji 6/2015
Niniejszy numer „Zarządzania Zasobami Ludzkimi” poświęcony został tematyce zatrudnialności, która w dotychczasowej tradycji polskich badań naukowych podejmowana była najczęściej przez makroekonomistów oraz badaczy rynku pracy. Jednak ta generalna perspektywa, szalenie skądinąd ważna, współcześnie już nie wystarcza. Zmiany zachodzące w biznesie i organizacjach publicznych, w programach zarządzania karierami i kulturze pracy, w charakterystyce relacji zatrudnienia czy wykształceniu pojedynczych osób sprawiają, że na zatrudnialność pracowników powinni zwrócić uwagę i praktycy, i badacze z obszaru zarządzania zasobami ludzkimi. Kwestia rozwijania zatrudnialności sama w sobie nie jest jednak ani prosta, ani powszechnie znana. Wzrost zatrudnialności pracowników stanowi bowiem, z jednej strony, szansę biznesową oraz może być traktowany jako sukces w wymiarze indywidualnym i organizacyjnym, z drugiej zaś może powodować, że najlepsi pracownicy będą gotowi opuścić firmę w najmniej oczekiwanym momencie. Zarządzanie ukierunkowane na wzrost zatrudnialności wymaga wysokiego poziomu wiedzy na temat zarządzania potencjałem społecznym oraz wyrafinowanych metod sprawowania władzy korporacyjnej. Jest także nowym wyzwaniem dla badaczy.
W literaturze zachodniej w ostatniej dekadzie popularne stało się indywidualistyczne ujęcie zatrudnialności, w którym eksponowane są korzyści, jakie niesie jej rozwój dla jednostki, a jednocześnie związane z nim zagrożenia dla organizacji. W obecnym numerze „Zarządzania Zasobami Ludzkimi” zaproponowane zostało nieco odmienne podejście, zgodnie z którym rozwój zatrudnialności może przynosić pozytywne skutki zarówno pracownikom, jak i organizacji, ponieważ stanowi istotny czynnik pozwalający organizacji na dopasowanie popytu i podaży pracy, dzięki zwiększeniu elastyczności jej zasobów ludzkich oraz rozwojowi specyficznych kompetencji pracowników w warunkach dynamicznych zmian w otoczeniu. (więcej…)
From the Editors
Employability This issue of Human Resource Management concentrates on the problems of employability, which have previously been mostly undertaken by macroeconomists and labor market researchers in the Polish tradition of scientific study. However, despite its importance, this general perspective is no longer satisfactory in this day and age. Due to ongoing changes in business, public organizations, career management programs as well as the specific character of employment relationships, work culture, and level of individual education, employability should start to draw the attention of HRM practitioners and theoreticians. The issue of employability enhancement is not simple and it is not commonly acknowledged. On the one hand, the increase of employee employability is a business opportunity that can be treated as both an organizational and individual success. On the other hand, it can result in the best employees leaving the organization at the least expected moments. Management oriented at employability enhancement requires greater knowledge in the field of social potential management and sophisticated methods of exercising corporate power. This is also a new challenge for researchers.
Over the past decade, emphasizing the advantages of employability for the individual in parallel with simultaneous threats to the organization, Western literature on the subject of the individualistic approach to employability has grown in popularity. A slightly different tactic is proposed in this issue of Human Resource Management. According to this approach, employability enhancement may bring positive results for both employees and organizations. This is because it is an important factor that allows organizations to adjust labor supply and demand thanks to the increasing flexibility of organizational human resources as well as the development of specific employee competences under conditions of dynamic environmental change. In the presented papers, authors analyze the phenomenon of employability from different perspectives. They consider the problem of employability enhancement from not only individual or organizational viewpoints, but also in the broader context of the needs of the demanding contemporary labor market, modifications to the psychological contract between an employee and an employer, and changes in employee career models. Giorgos Bozionelos and Nikos Bozionelos pick up the thread of change in career models on the basis of empirical research conducted in Greece. Their paper identifies the relationships between a boundaryless career mindset, a protean career orientation, and employability as well as consequences of employability such as openness towards organizational change and willingness to expend effort at work. The next two papers are also based on the results of interesting empirical research carried out in Great Britain and Poland. They raise the important issue of employability enhancement in relation to young people. Written by Belgin Okay–Somerville and Dora Scholarios, the first of these papers is devoted to the problem of university graduate employability and the impact of their behavior on career self–management, job search self–efficacy, and employment success. The significance of perceived employability, which can become an important barrier in the employment of young people, is also pointed out in Dariusz Turek’s paper, which is concerned with the low employability of young people belonging to what is known as the “NEET” group. In the successive paper on the subject of employability, Beata Buchelt considers its factors and barriers to its enhancement in relation to a specific job group, i.e. physicians. The paper attempts to define the essence of a physician’s employability and to identify key barriers to its enhancement at market and individual levels. Specific features of the organizational context such as the size of an organization or the kind of economic activity may have an impact on employee employability. This is because they also usually condition possibilities of professional development provided to employees by the organization. Dedicated to this subject, Urban Pauli’s paper elaborates on the possibilities of employability enhancement in small– and medium–sized enterprises. Pauli puts forward an interesting and controversial thesis whereby these organizations create specific conditions that encourage the development of competences that determine employability. In turn, Izabela Marzec’s research report presents an analysis of the factors determining the employability of employees in public organizations providing social services. She discusses the practices of employability enhancement as applied in organizations that have been identified in empirical research carried out in Municipal Social Welfare Centers and Powiat Labor Offices. The chapter “Portfolio of Methods and Tools” contains the noteworthy work of Sylwia Wiśniewska. Her paper emphasizes the importance of competencies as a factor determining the employability of employees. The complexity of the employability phenomenon and the variety of its conditions is pointed out in the context of the situation on the contemporary labor market. Also to be found is a detailed analysis of diverse competences constituting employability as well as methods and tools of their development. In the chapter “Reviews, Discussions,” Roman Maroń reviews the book Skills for Success: Personal Development and Employability, by Stella Cottrell. Despite its popular scientific character, this book corresponds to the issues presented very well. Concluding these words of introduction, it must be mentioned that only some aspects of the very interesting and promising question of employability have been discussed in this thematic issue as presented to you, our readers. The collected papers clearly point at the versatility of this topic, which should be further explored and studied, as well as the diversity of accepted research approaches and presented concepts. On behalf of the authors as well as ourselves, we express the deep belief that the presented works will not only allow better recognition of the essence and meaning of employability as well as ways to manage it, but will also serve as the beginning of interesting implementations and an inspiring source of scientific questions.
Izabela Marzec, Ph.D. Prof. Janusz Strużyna, Ph.D., Habil. Issue Scientific Editors