Od redakcji 6/2013
Rozwój Zasobów Ludzkich
Termin „rozwój zasobów ludzkich” (Human resource development – HRD) stosowany jest tradycyjnie na określenie szerokiego zakresu zagadnień związanych z indywidualnym i organizacyjnym uczeniem się, wzbogacaniem wiedzy, doskonaleniem umiejętności i zdolności, kształtowaniem wartości i postaw ludzi w środowisku pracy.
Współcześnie rozwój zasobów ludzkich kojarzony jest najczęściej z takimi zagadnieniami, jak: szkolenia, rozwój pracowników, kariera, zarządzanie talentami, uczenie się, edukacja, ale też doskonalenie efektywności pracy na poziomie jednostki, grupy, organizacji, gospodarki jako całości i w skali międzynarodowej. Interdyscyplinarność problematyki wchodzącej w zakres rozwoju zasobów ludzkich powoduje, że kwestie te znajdują się w polu zainteresowania szeregu dyscyplin naukowych, m.in.: ekonomii, pedagogiki, zarządzania, psychologii, socjologii (Chalofsky, 2007). (więcej…)
From The Editor 6/2013
Human Resource Development
Traditionally, the term Human Resource Development (HRD) focused on understanding learning by individuals and organizations with an emphasis on the augmentation of knowledge, improving skills and capabilities (“training”), and shaping the values and attitudes of people in the workplace. Human Resource Development has evolved to encompass employee development (“development”), careers, talent management, and how these can enhance the efficiency and performance of individuals, groups, teams, organizations, and nations.
The interdisciplinary nature of HRD means that it falls under the remit of scholars in a broad range of disciplines, including (but not exhaustive of) economics, education, management, psychology, and sociology (Chalofsky, 2007). A better understanding of the context of facilitating the learning process both for individuals and organizations has also emerged. These matters are currently examined in the context of challenges as derived from an economy based on knowledge, companies based on knowledge (“knowledge enterprises”) as well as on knowledge workers and learning organizations. In this setting, a major challenge for the discipline of human resource development is the translation of learning processes into organizational knowledge by way of coupling individual, group, and organizational learning (Clarke, 2004). Strategic HRD emphasizes the importance of the critical alignment between organization’s and nation’s strategies and their HRD policies and practices. This stems from the growing role of human capital, which is an integral part of intellectual capital as a competitive factor of the company, economy, or of the individual on the labor market. Strategic Human Resource Development (SHRD) is a unique form or model of human resource development. It is made up of a cohesive set of vertically and horizontally integrated actions in the realm of learning and development that play a role in achieving strategic goals. Strategic Human Resource Development is a logical consequence of the development of Organizational Development (OD), the grow ing complexity of change management, and the new proposal that sees 21st century HRD putting people first as well as promoting values first in the change process. During the past two decades, HRD research has broadened to examine HRD in international contexts (Garavan and Carbery, 2012). The focus on international HRD reflects a variety of political and macro level trends such as the fall of communism, globalization, rapid technological change, changes in organizational forms, and the rapid expansion of foreign direct investment (FDI), especially into economies that were previously relatively closed to foreign capital—e.g., China, India, and Central and Eastern European (CEEC) economies. Morley (2007) conceptualizes international HRM as three distinct but overlapping trajectories: international, comparative, and cross cultural. This uncertainty has had a significant impact on the state of HRD in theory and practice (McCartney and Sheehan, 2014, forthcoming). This issue of Human Resource Management represents a unique juxtaposition of contribution, each of which are set within at least one of the international HRD trajectories identified by Morley (2007) and are situated in an overall broader context of ongoing global economic and financial uncertainty. The issue contains carefully selected articles prepared for the University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD) Conference held in Brighton, June 2013, whose theme was “HRD in Turbulent Seas.”1 The conference title made reference to the already mentioned global economic uncertainty and encouraged contributors to critically reflect on opportunities and threats for the development and sustainability of HRD. The issue opens with an article by Katarzyna Susabowska and Eduardo Tomé entitled “Human Resource Development, Sects, and Culture: Theoretical Basis for a Comparative Study.” In it, the authors present a theoretical basis for conducting comparative studies on relations between human resource development, sects, and culture. This important critical theoretical contribution addresses all three international HRD trajectories. Moreover, it posits that cultedness is a significant potential check on the future extension and penetration of globalization. In the successive article, Mrudula Anne, Jamie Callahan and Hyounju Kang discuss the concept of intersectionality in the context of the phenomenon of discrimination for reasons of sex and caste membership in Indian society. The authors also challenge the frequently espoused notion of often unchallenged positives attributed to globalization. They show that while globalization has accelerated economic development in India, it has also deepened the legacy of class, caste, and gender inequalities. Using a lens of cultural conflict, the authors show how HRD interventions can help to redress the complex dynamics of gender and caste intersectional ity and their associated inequalities. While this analysis is based in India, the tools used and lessons learned from it have important implications for demonstrating how HRD can contribute to addressing class, racial, religious, and gender intersectionality globally and especially in the developing world, where intersectionality can be a matter of life and death. The importance of cross-cultural intelligence and having a global mindset are the focus of Robin Hurst’s contribution that examines the complex cross-cultural relationships associated with international mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Dr. Hurst shows how HRD can contribute positively and significantly to employee assimilation and subsequent contribution to their organization in a post-acquisition environment. Critically, he shows how the organization’s strategy—a relatively young U.S. company (ten years)—welcomed learning and development from the organization it acquired—a well established family–owned Indian company (30 years)—which had a significant influence on the success of this M&A. Hurst’s analysis should be studied by all stake holders involved in M&A activities. The focus of the next two articles shifts to the relationship between nation states and HRD. Oleksandr Tkachenko and Alexandre Ardichvili provide a detailed analysis of human capital development in Central and Eastern Europe, using Estonia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia as examples. Utilising national level databases, they show that the intersection of three critical systems—education, training, and labor markets—fundamentally affect human capital development outcomes, especially in relation to performance in mathematics and sciences. These are disciplines that will be essential for ensuring the competitive advantage of EU countries in the future and, as the authors illustrate, are in need of significant HRD interventions from both the public and private sectors. Katarzyna Susabowska, in her article entitled “The Quest for HRD in Poland,” analyzes factors influencing the development of HRD in Poland. She demonstrates how external political influences and internal political and cultural factors have all contributed to the current state of HRD in Poland. Her analysis provides a valuable framework for future analyses of the evolution of HRD in CEEC countries. In the next article, Anna Szabowska–Walaszczyk, Andrzej Brzozowski, and Anna Maria Zawadzka present an analysis of the critical positive synergies between HRD interventions, employee engagement (EE), and organizational performance. They show that HRD interventions have a positive effect on EE, which in turn is positively associated with organizational performance outcomes. While there is a growing body of empirical evidence of such relationships, this is one of the first set in the context of a transition economy. Again, this study provides an invaluable framework for future research on the relationship between HRD, EE, and organizational performance. Such studies, however, must be cognizant of their cultural developing economy). The article by Anna Laura Hidegh and Sára Csillag examines how HRD can contribute to the employment welfare of people with disabilities. Not only is the presence of this critical issue—HRD and diversity—very limited in literature, even in the context of countries somewhat “ahead” of the curve with these issues—e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Sweden— but the silence of the rest of the world resonates among those attuned to issues of HRD and diversity. The authors show how a champion for diversity can intervene through HRD and have very positive effects not only on individual/participant outcomes, but for society in general. Linked to global uncertainty and the ongoing financial crisis, HRD funds for the authors’ study were cut, thus highlighting how the global environment adversely impacts on micro–level HRD interventions, perhaps disproportionately in recent transition and/or emerging economies. In the “Case Study” section, Eva Maria Emma Wuellner discusses the challenges facing specialists in HRD in international companies operating in Russia. She examines key issues in terms of talent management facing HRD professionals in that country. The study shows how important the cultural trajectory is for attracting and retaining talent, even in a context of high global uncertainty. In the “Methods and Tools” section, Alison Haill and Milena Gojny present a tool known as the “Impact Gap Profiler,” which serves to diagnose and develop language skills for communication among managers. This article shows how individual managers and leaders hone speaking skills to create more impact and influence on their target audience. This is an invaluable example of implementing HRD and should be read by all practitioners who have a remit of delivering cross-cultural and language skills to their clients. The above papers found in this issue of Human Resource Management confirm the broad scope of problems undertaken within the framework of human resource development. As the editors of this issue of Human Resource Management, we hope that the works it contains will interest people involved in the theory and practice of human resource development and that they will serve as inspiration for further research and improvements in practices, especially in emerging and developing economies, applied in this field.
Maura Sheehan,2 Aleksy Pocztowski3 Issue Science Editors
- Chalofsky N. (2007), “The Seminal Foundation of the Discipline of HRD: People, Learning and Organisations,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 3: 431–442.
- Clarke N. (2004), “HRD and the Challenges of Assessing Learning in the Workplace,” International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2: 140–56.
- Garavan T. N. and Carbery R. (2012), “The Review of International HRD: Incorporating a Global HRD Construct,” European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 36, No. 2/3: 129-157.
- McCarthy A. and Sheehan M. (2014, forthcoming), “Uncertainty & On–Going Eco- nomic Turbulence: Implications for HRD,” Advances in Developing Human Resources.
- Morley, M. J. (2007), “Of Infants and Antecedents: Progress and Pessimism in the Development Trajectory of International Human Resource Management,” paper presented at the 9th Conference on International Human Resource Management, Tallinn.
1. Information on this conference is presented in the “Information, Chronicle” section. 2 Maura Sheehan, Ph.D., Professor of International Management, J. E. Cairnes School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland. 3 Aleksy Pocztowski, Ph.D., Habil., Professor of Human Resource Management, Chair of the Department of Human Capital Management, Cracow University of Economics.